Sunset at Gowanus Bay

Sunset at Gowanus Bay
Sunset at Gowanus Bay, Henry Gritten, 1851

Friday, October 30, 2015

Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey (Part III)

Part I of this set was posted on October 27, 2015. Part II was posted on October 28, 2015. Part III continues with more Brouwer, Brower, Brewer and Bruere entries found in the series of 47 volumes. An attempt is being made to identify each of those who appear in the series.

In volume 24, Extracts from American Newspapers..., page 571, published in The New York Gazette or Weekly Post Boy, July 18, 1765 is the notice for the sale at "Public Vendue, at the Court-House in Sussex County, on Tuesday the 26th of November next." The property is described as a tract of land in the Township of New-Town, Sussex County, on the head Branch of Palins Kill, "and divided into the following Lots or Farms," The owners of ten lots or farms are listed (numbered 1 to 11, with no. 4 not included). On lot No. 9, of 144 acres, is Benjamin Brewer. The land for sale is being "shewn by Elisha Robbins, living on the Premses (he owns lots 7 and 8), or Robert Allen; Living at Pepack, in Somerset County." Robert Allen has the power to accept a private sale. James Parker placed the notice (perhaps he owns the entire 10 or 11 lot property). Benjamin Brewer had to have been an adult by 1765, and so born in or prior to 1744. The name Benjamin is not all that common among the earlier generations of Brewers and Browers in New Jersey (and New York).
We know of Benjamin, baptized 19 February 1738 at Freehold-Middletown, son of Jan Brouwer and Helena Van Cleef. He would be a descendant of Jan Brouwer of Flatlands, L. I. He married Maria Lane in 1767 (two years after this date) and five known children baptized at Freehold-Middletown between 1768 and 1785 (there may have been others as there are multi-year gaps between baptisms of some of his known children).
We also know of Benjamin, baptized 11 February 1728 at the New York Reformed Dutch Church, son of Pieter Brouwer and Elizabeth Quackenbosch. He is a descendant of Adam Brouwer of Gowanus. Pieter Brouwer, bricklayer of New York City, made his will on 15 May 1767 (not proved until 22 January 1788). The only son mentioned in the will is Jacob (baptized in 1725) who received six shillings, wearing apparel and residue of the estate (sounds as if Jacob was the oldest son, who by 1767 was already established and had already received his share). Pieter's real and personal estate went to his daughters Ann and Elizabeth, both of whom were married. Pieter's son Benjamin is not mentioned, and when this occurs the assumption is often that the unnamed child is deceased. But that is not always the case. Every child is not named in every will. Pieter and Elizabeth also had sons Everardus (baptized 1739) and Petrus (baptized 1740) who are not named in the will. Although further record of Everardus has not yet been found, Petrus was living in 1767 (in fact he died in 1842 at age 102 in Claremont County, Ohio). Petrus Brouwer, a.k.a. Peter Brewer  married Margaret Mellow, of Somerset County, New Jersey in 1780, and had two sons, Peter and Adam, born in Gloucester County in 1788 and 1802 (no doubt there are other children yet to be accounted for). The New Jersey marriage license states that Peter Brewer was of Somerset County, New Jersey in 1780 (volume 22, p. 32). Could Pieter and Elizabeth's son Benjamin have also been alive in 1767, perhaps living in New Jersey, and not named in his father's will?
I know of no other Benjamin Brouwers, Browers or Brewers born early enough to have been living (he was probably leasing) on his own lot or farm. Is Benjamin Brewer of Newtown (now Newton Twp.), Sussex County, New Jersey in 1765, one of the above two men? If so, which one? Or is he someone yet to be discovered? Another note; in the late 1700s and into the 1800s the name Benjamin Brewer begins to appear in western Pennsylvania (and then in places west, like Indiana). Could Benjamin Brewer of Newtown be a connection? The western counties of New Jersey (Hunterdon, Somerset, and Sussex (from which Warren County was created in 1824), were jumping off points for settlers of the western areas of Pennsylvania near the borders with Virginia and Maryland. Did Benjamin Brewer of Newtown, or perhaps his sons, move westward in the late 1700s? We know of many Brewer families that "suddenly" appear in the region of western Pennsylvania in the late 1700s. Y-DNA testing of some descendants (through the Brewer DNA Project at Family Tree DNA) has shown that some are descendants of Adam Brouwer, while others are descendants of Jan Brouwer. Few have been able to prove their connection to either Adam or Jan. Benjamin Brewer of Newtown, may be a link.

Volume 25, Extracts from American Newspapers..., has mentions of two men named Brewer. At pages 142-143 is the publication of an order dated 17 June 1766. The order comes from Benjamin Thompson and Philip Van Horne, two of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas for Somerset County. Gerrit Brewer is an insolvent debtor and his creditors are ordered to show cause before the said Judges at Milstone (Millstone, Somerset County) on 14 July. This was published in The New York Gazette or Weekly Post Boy, June 19, 1766. Gerrit, baptized 10 January 1742 at Hackensack (Bergen County, New Jersey), son of Abraham Brouwer and Elizabeth Ackerman (and a descendant of Adam Brouwer), would have been 24 (maybe 25) years old in June 1766. To my knowledge, further records regarding this Gerrit Brouwer have yet to be found.
Another mention of a Gerrit Brouwer, old enough to be an insolvent adult in 1766, is found in this same baptism record. The witnesses for the baptism of Gerrit, child of Abraham Brouwer and Elizabeth Ackerman, were Gerrit Brouwer and Jenneke Brouwer. Abraham Brouwer was a son of Uldrick Brouwer and his first wife Hester de Voe. Uldrick's second wife was Adriantje Pieters (daughter of Pieter Hessels and Lysbeth Gerrits) who he married in 1711. While there are baptism records for two children of Uldrick and Adriantje (Metje 1723, Esther 1726 both at Hackensack) it is apparent that the couple may have had as many as nine other children. Gerrit and Janneke, witnesses at this baptism in 1742 could be two of them. Other records for either Gerrit or Janneke have yet to be identified, however, Janneke may be the otherwise unplaced Jannetje Brouwer (a.k.a. Tannica, Yannica, and Jane) who married Cornelius Tunisen in New Jersey in 1749. They had children named Cornelius, Garret and Arietta.
The name Gerrit is not common among the descendants of either Adam Brouwer or Jan Brouwer, and the only other mention of one who could be an adult in 1766, is Gerrit Brouwer, who with Jannetje Stymets, witnessed the baptism of Pieter, son of Johannes Van Rypen and Hester Stymets at the New York Reformed Dutch Church on 28 Oct 1767. Both the Van Rypen and Stymets families have roots in Bergen County, New Jersey, and it is likely that this Gerrit is one of the above two. More research is needed here. All other known men named Gerrit (Garret) Brouwer, Brower or Brewer were born post 1750, and thereby could not have been the insolvent Gerrit Brewer, Somerset County, New Jersey in 1766.

Also in volume 25, at page 138, Samuel Brewer, Goaler (jailer) posts a reward for the capture of Robert Mouston, "a Taylor by Trade, born in Scotland," from the "Goal of Somerset County" (The Pennsylvania Gazette, June 19, 1766). At page 433, dateline New York, August 20, "We hear from the county of Somerset, and province of New Jersey, that on the 20th ultimo Samuel Brewer, Esq., was elected a representative for that county, in the room of John Hooglandt, Esq., deceased" (The Pennsylvania Chronicle, August 17-24, 1767). But then at page 441 is a correction, "New York, August 31. It was Abraham Vanness, Esq., and not Samuel Brewer, that was elected a Representative for the County of Somerset..." (The New York Mercury, August 31, 1767). This is obviously the same Samuel Brewer mentioned in Part II, found in volume 20. As mentioned in Part II, Samuel Brewer, the jailer, is possibly, or even probably the son of Willem Brouwer and Martha Boulton who was baptized on 25 August 1706 at Breuckelen. A contemporary Samuel Brouwer was baptized on 18 February 1705 at Hackensack, New Jersey, a son of Abraham Brouwer and Lea Demarest, and a great-grandson of Adam Brouwer. However, that Samuel Brouwer's adult life is accounted for. He married Maria Hartje in 1728, and had ten children between 1729 and 1755. The first four were baptized at either Tappan, New York or Schraalenburg, New Jersey (two at each location), and the youngest six were baptized in New York City. He cannot be the Samuel Brewer, jailer of Somerset County.

In volume 26, Extracts from American Newspapers..., pages 131-132, is the announcement of a public sale to take place on 25 April 1768. Up for sale is a "Fulling Mill, with a fine Stream of Water, situate in Allen-Town, East Jersey..." A dwelling house, meadow, wood land, tools and household goods, even a young milk cow are available. It is the estate of Isaac Price, and the sale is conducted by the executors of the estate, Peter Brewer and Nathan Robins. This Peter Brewer is Peter Bruere who came from the Palatinate to New York as a teenager in 1709 and then settled, and became a rather large landholder, in Upper Freehold, Monmouth County. His wife was Elinor Price, a sister of this Isaac Price. The announcement appeared in The Pennsylvania Gazette, April 7, 1768.
At page 581, published in The New York Gazette or Weekly Post Boy, December 11, 1769, "Whereas the General Assembly of the Province of New Jersey, have passed an Act for the Relief of Debtors, at their last Session: We the Debtors in the Goal of the County of Essex, intending to take the Benefit of said Act, do hereby desire all our Creditors to take Notice accordingly. Dated Essex County Goal, December 11, 1769. It is "signed" by six men, one of whom is Garret Brewer (see above). I guess Garret and the others were all "too big to fail."

In volume 27, Extracts from American Newspapers..., page 320 is another announcement of the sale of the property of Isaac Price (although his name is not stated this time) by Peter Brewer and Nathan Robins, executors. It was published in The Pennsylvania Gazette, December 13, 1770. The date of the sale, in Allen-Town, is December 27, 1770. This is more than two and a half years after the first attempt of a sale (above) was made.

In volume 28, Extracts from American Newspapers..., page 243. This is an announcement dated New York, September 2, 1772, published in The New York Gazette; and the Weekly Mercury, September 14, 1772. It is signed by a very long list of individuals, including one woman (Elizabeth Breese) and a few partnerships. They appear to be merchants of New York City. One of the signers is Jeremiah Brower. Their announcement mentions that the New York City Chamber of Commerce resolved that after September 3rd, they will no longer be accepting "Jersey Money in Payment on any other Terms than at Six and Two Thirds, which is just One Shilling (New York Currency) Loss on every Three Pound Jersey Bill." The signing subscribers are notifying their "New Jersey, New York and Connecticut Friends, and all others," that they will continue to receive Jersey Money in all payments. There are a number of men named Jeremiah Brower living during the 18th century in the greater New York City area. This Jeremiah Brower, a.k.a. Jeury Brouwer, was the son of Jeury Brouwer and Elizabeth Hilton and a great grandson of Adam Brouwer. He died 28 April 1776 at Hackensack, New Jersey in his 48th year. He married Jane Elsworth on 15 February 1750 (New York Reformed Dutch Church) and they had twelve children between 1751 and 1776, the last child (Mary) born posthumously. His will was dated 8 April 1776 and proved 16 May 1776 in New York. Jeremiah was a successful merchant with shipping interests. I have seen his name in published accounts of the records of Sir William Johnson, the principal figure in the English settlement of New York State's Mohawk Valley region and westward. His shipping interests extended to the southern states and certainly to the West Indies. His eldest son, also named Jeremiah, settled in Charlestown, South Carolina where he married in 1774. He remained there after the Revolutionary War. Another son, Dr. Abraham Brower went west to Ohio and then Indiana. Sons Theophilus, Hendrick and Johannes remained in New York City. Son, William died in Jersey City, New Jersey in 1832. His daughter Jane married Peter Kip, and daughter Mary married Solomon Jackson. A daughter Elizabeth, named in his will, has not yet been further accounted for. Three other children died during childhood.

In volume 29, Extracts from American Newspapers..., pages 557-558 has a curious story about a man named James Parsons who was committed to the goal at Perth Amboy. Parsons' travels on horseback beginning at New Milford, Connecticut, through Massachusetts, Connecticut, Westchester County, New York to Woodbridge, New Jersey are recounted. At Rye, New York, "he swapped with Joseph Brewer, for a large black horse." This was published in Rivington's New York Gazetteer, December 29, 1774. I do not have another record of a Joseph Brewer of Rye, New York from this period. This story is repeated in volume 31, Extracts from American Newspapers..., page 20, in the January 5, 1775 edition of Rivington's New York Gazetteer.

Part IV, to follow, will cover entries found in the 2nd Series of volumes. Please consult the Brouwer Genealogy Database website for additional information and sources regarding those mentioned above. As a reminder, a full list of all the volumes that make up Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey, with links to digital editions, is online here.

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Wednesday, October 28, 2015

Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey (Part II)

In this post, we will point out the mentions of persons named Brewer, Brower, Brouwer, and Bruere, found in the remaining 33 volumes of Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey. That is, mentions found in the volumes other than the thirteen volumes (23, 30, 32-42) that pertain to wills and administrations, and volume 22, which is dedicated to marriage records. For those volumes, see Part I.

Volume 11, Extracts from American Newspapers..., pages 571-72, from The Boston Weekly Post-Boy, June 11, 1739. "Last Week a young Woman, the Daughter of Adolph Brower, of Hackensuck was bit in three different Places by a Rattle-Snake, as she was gathering Straw berries; the injected Venom operated so speedy that she dies in a few Hours." The editor's footnote tells us that this was "Doubtless Femmetje, daughter of Adolf Brouwer and Jannetie Verdon, baptized in the Hackensack church 1 December 1723." This suggestion is undoubtedly incorrect, as this Femmetje Brouwer was married to John Henry Gesner in 1744 by the Lutheran minister in New York City. This couple had ten children, lived at or near Tappan, New York, where Femmetje died in 1788. William J. Hoffman in his series, "Brouwer Beginnings" (TAG 24 [1945]: 169, assigns this incident to Adolf and Jannetie's youngest daughter, Leah, who was baptized 11 February 1739 at the Schraalenburgh church. The problem here is that Leah would have been about four months old when she was bitten by the rattlesnake, while the newspaper extract describes the victim as a "young Woman," which would imply someone over the age of 14, but not yet married. Adolf and Jannetie's other known daughters, Jannetje (baptized 1719), Maria (1726) and Rachel (1732) all lived into adulthood and married. Either the newspaper report was in error in the description of Adlof's daughter, or Adolf and Jannetie had another daughter, likely born prior to 1725, who has not been identified. It is noted that there is a five year gap between the birth of Adolf's first child Nicholas (born 11 June 1714 as per a Bible record, but no baptism record found) and his second child, Jannetje (baptized 18 May 1719 at the Breuckelen church). It is conceivable that Adolf and Jannetie had a daughter born between 1715 and 1719, at Brooklyn where the couple first lived, but whose baptism record has not survived, and whose name has not survived as she died prior to being married. The Brooklyn church records are notoriously thin between 1700 and 1719, and are lost for the years after 1719.

In volume 12, Extracts from American Newspapers..., page 135 is an account of Adolph Brower (the same as above) being struck by lightning. It is from The Boston Evening-Post, July 19, 1742, dateline New York, July 12. "From Hackensack we hear that the House of Adolph Brower was struck with Lightning, himself and a Negro Man were struck, who died immediately; with much ado his Corps (sic), and some of the Household Goods were saved from the Flames but the negro was consumed." (I'm assuming that "Corps" is an error for crops). So, Adolph lost a daughter to a rattlesnake bite, and he himself was struck by lightning. The Adolph of this newspaper account and the one above, was Adolphus Brouwer, baptized as Adam on 15 October 1693 at Breuckelen, the son of Nicholas Brouwer and Jannetje Caljer. He is a grandson of Adam Brouwer of Gowanus, Long Island.

In volume 15, Journal of the Governor and Council, 1738-1748, page 564, is the Affidavit of Isaac Brower, William Ramsay and Conrad Fredericks, "concerning Mrs Valleau and others threatening to Turn Edward Jeffers out of possession at Romopock," dated 20 August 1746. This is no. 22 in a list of "the Papers laid before the House of Assembly by His Excellency in August last and which were sent to this House from the House of Assembly be Entered in the Minutes of this House and that the said Papers be referred to the Committee appointed by this House to Confer with the Committee of the House of Assembly." The Isaac Brower of this affidavit would of had to have been an adult in 1746, and the only Isaac Brower known of who meets that requirement would be the Isaac, baptized 5 April 1703 at Bergen, New Jersey, son of Uldrick Brouwer and his first wife Hester de Voe. Isaac would then be a grandson of Pieter Brouwer, and a great-grandson of Adam Brouwer.

In volume 16, Journal of the Governor and Council, 1748-1755, at pages 120, 125 and 148, is found Peter Bruere, spelled Bruier. Beginning at the bottom of page 119 and continuing on to 120 is a "Bill Entitled, An Act for Naturalizing Peter Schmuck, Philip Marot And Peter Bruier." The date is March 7th 1748. The bill was read and a second reading was ordered. The second reading (March 8th 1748) is found on page 125. On (I believe) March 28th 1749, the "Act for Naturalizing Peter Schmuck, Philip Marot and Peter Bruier," was approved (page 148). Peter Bruere and his descendants are found in Upper Freehold, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Their surname is sometimes rendered in records as Brewer.

In volume 19, Extracts from American Newspapers..., page 428 is a "List of Letters in the Post-Office at Trenton, September 28, 1754." Appearing on this list is "William Brower, Riddentown." The list was published in The Pennsylvania Gazette, October 17, 1754. "Riddentown" would be Readington, New Jersey (see this excerpt from The Geographical and Historical Dictionary of America and the West Indies, Vol. IV (1818), page 313, bottom right). This William Brower is undoubtedly a descendant of Adam Brouwer of Gowanus, L. I. He may be the William baptized 25 June 1727 at the Raritan Reformed Church, son of Hendrick Brouwer and Marritje. He may then be the William Brouwer who married Margaret Van Sickle with a license of 30 September 1748 at Hunterdon County. They had two children (Catharine and William) baptized at Readington in 1748 and 1752.

In volume 20, Extracts from American Newspapers..., page 72, "Twenty-five Pounds Reward," for anyone "that takes up and secures" two men, one named John Pattison, and the other Edward Brewer, who is described as, "a house-carpenter by trade, born in Ireland, pock-fretten, well-set, has black eyes, about 5 feet 4 inches high..." The reward is offered by William Kelly. If I am not mistaken, I believe this ran with other solicitations in The New York Mercury, October 11, 1756.
At page 103, "A List of Letters that remain in the Post-Office in Philadelphia." Included here is "Hannah Brewer, Jersey." This in The Pennsylvania Gazette, April 7, 1757. Whether or not this is a single woman, or a married woman named Hannah Brewer, is not certain, which in turn makes identification difficult.
At page 128, "Ten Pounds, Reward," for Jonathan Dudley, who escaped from the Somerset County goal (jail). The reward is offered by Robert Stockton, sheriff, to whoever brings Dudley safely to "Samuel Brewer, goaler, at the court-house" in Somerset County. This ran in The New York Mercury, August 22, 1757. The Samuel Brewer here is very likely the Samuel Brewer who was listed as a Freeholder in the Western Precinct of Somerset County in 1753. It appears that he had a wife named Maregrita (Margaret) and two daughters baptized at Raritan in 1732 and 1735, both named Annetie. While this Samuel Brewer's ancestry is not at all certain, a possibility is that Samuel is the Samuel, baptized 25 August 1706 at Breuckelen, son of William Brouwer and Martha Boulton (and so a grandson of Adam Brouwer of Gowanus, L. I.). It is also possible that Samuel is a son of Derck Brouwer and Hannah Daws (therefore a grandson of Jan Brouwer of Flatlands, L. I.), but I think this placement is less likely.

For more on those named above, and for source citations, please refer to the Brouwer Genealogy Database website, and use the index to locate individuals.

This set of posts covering Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey, will continue with Part III.

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Tuesday, October 27, 2015

Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey (Part I)

Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey comprises two series and a total of 47 volumes of material that, as you might suspect, relate to the colonial history of the State of New Jersey. The volumes were published over a 69 year period between 1880 and 1949. There was a time when accessing these volumes required making a trip to a public library that had the physical volumes. Now, all of the volumes are available online in digital format. Here is a list with links.


The Family History Library also has links to digitized versions through a page in their online FamilySearch Catalog

The value of the individual volumes with regards to genealogical research is varied, but the most valuable, and probably the most cited are the volumes in the First Series that form the Calendar of New Jersey Wills, Administrations, Etc. This "sub-set" consists of thirteen volumes, numbered First Series, Vols. 23, 30, and 32-42. Each volume is indexed. The original estate records abstracted in this set are housed at Trenton, New Jersey. They do not constitute all of the estate and probate records from New Jersey. Many others are housed in other locations, particularly in county offices. I would suggest utilizing the Family History Library online catalog to find estate records not abstracted in this set. Do a state wide search using United States, New Jersey, then look under the category Probate Records. And also do a search in the individual county of interest. For example - United States, New Jersey, Monmouth - Probate Records. Many (perhaps even all) of these microfilmed records are now available online under New Jersey Probate Records, 1678-1980. There is no search feature for these records, you will have to "browse" through them. They are organized by county and are accessed through the "Browse through 1,913,824 images" link. In addition, there is a separate set of images from Middlesex County, titled "New Jersey, Middlesex County Probate Records, 1830-1921." Again, no search engine, but you can browse through the images.

A few years ago I had extracted out every entry from the thirteen volumes in the Documents Relating...  volumes that cover the will and administration records, that mentioned someone named Brower, Brewer, Bruere, etc. That work is still available online as a PDF.

After the volumes containing abstracts of wills and administrations, the next most valuable volume is First Series, Volume 22, Marriage Records, 1665-1800. This volume, edited by William Nelson, was published in 1900. It does not include an index as each set of marriage records are arranged alphabetically. The volume opens with an introduction on the custom of marriage and a couple of chapters on marriage laws and the like in New Jersey. This is followed by the book's largest section, "Index to Marriage Bonds and Marriage Records in the Office of the Secretary of State at Trenton." As mentioned, the records here are arranged alphabetically, with each letter of the alphabet divided into a section for males, followed by females. Brewer males are found at page 32 , Brewer females at page 54. There is one Brower male at page 34, and four Brower females at page 56. The surnames Brouwer and Bruere are not found in this index. The New Jersey State Archives (NJSA) has a searchable database of marriage license records. Here, for example, is a search using Brewer, Elias. Individual records can then be selected and copies of the license ordered from the New Jersey Department of State. This PDF page created by the NJSA provides and overview, and some links, for their collection of genealogical records.

The contents for Volume 22 (pages xi and xii) list the other sets of records that are included. They are mostly from the various churches in New Jersey including Dutch Reformed, Baptist, Christ Church, and Friend's Monthly Meeting. There is also six years of Essex County Clerk, and five years of Middlesex County Clerk marriage records. The introductions to each set of records are helpful and should be consulted. As the church records are extracted from previously published records of the various churches, it is always best to go back to the earlier versions and consult them for accuracy.

The remaining 33 volumes of the two series cover varied sets of records and documents. The first two volumes are dedicated to the early colonial period. Other volumes are arranged by the administrations of the various New Jersey Governors. Many of the volumes cover "Extracts from American Newspapers Relating to New Jersey," and they are arranged by years. Each volume includes its own index. The surnames Brewer, Brower, Brouwer, or Bruere are absent from volumes 1 through 10.

We will cover the mentions of persons named Brewer, Brower, Brouwer and Bruere, found in the remaining volumes in Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey (Part II).

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Sunday, October 18, 2015

Who is Hendrick Jansen, from Jeveren, Locksmith?

On 21 February 1645, at New Amsterdam, "Hendrick Jansen from Jeveren, locksmith, and Adam Brouwer have in love and friendship, in the presence of the witnesses hereto invited, agreed and contracted about the purchase of a certain house and lot for a garden situated on the island of Manhatans."* The date of this contract gives us the first verifiable mention of Adam Brouwer in New Netherland, and the phrase "in love and friendship," begs us to ask, who is this Hendrick Jansen, and can he in anyway provide us with new leads regarding Adam Brouwer's origins?

Three other records provide us with another potential clue. On the same date as the contract above, Adam Brouwer gave power of attorney to one Geurt Servasz, at Amsterdam, residing in Papenbrigh alley, in "The Whalebone," to collect on his (Adam's) behalf his wages due from the West India Company earned in Brazil.* Two and a half years later, on 9 August 1647, at New Amsterdam, Hendrick Jansen, smith, gave power of attorney to Geurt Servaessen, residing in Pepenbroeck alley at Amsterdam, to collect on his (Hendrick's) behalf, money due on a note from Jan Jansz from Rotterdam, cooper.* A bit over a year later, on 10 September 1648, at New Amsterdam, Hendrick Jansen, smith, again gave a power of attorney to Geurt Servaessen, residing at "Papenbroch streech" at Amsterdam, power of attorney to collect from the West India Company wages due Bartel Lourisz for service on De Princess.** The records of the Provincial Secretary of New Amsterdam contain a number of such power of attorneys - requests by persons living at New Amsterdam for others about to make a trip to Amsterdam to collect money from the WIC and others, on their behalf. Of these requests, only Adam Brouwer and Hendrick Jansen, smith, gave power of attorney to this Geurt Servaessen, who was living in Amsterdam at the time. What previous connection did Adam Brouwer and Hendrick Jansen have with Geurt Servaessen? Did both Adam and Hendrick know Geurt personally from some time in the past, back in Amsterdam? Was only Hendrick acquainted with Geurt and did Hendrick then recommend Geurt to his friend Adam, or vice-a-versa?

Here is what we know regarding "Hendrick Jansen, from Jeveren, locksmith," a.k.a. "Hendrick Jansen, smith." Hendrick Jansen was born about 1602 at "Jeveren." His wife was Annetje Gerrits. He committed suicide by hanging on or just before 16 July 1664, in New Amsterdam. During his life at New Amsterdam, Hendrick was a locksmith, more frequently called simply a smith (smit), he also owned a tavern, and rented out at least one house in New Amsterdam. [A timeline of records for Hendrick Jansen, with sources, is online as a PDF].

On 6 October 1638, "Hendrick Jansen, locksmith, aged 36 years, and Hendrick Gerritsen, aged 20," gave depositions at New Amsterdam on behalf of Grietje Reyniers who was disputing statements made by Domine Everardus Bogardus (see the above linked PDF for source citations for this and all that follows). This establishes that Hendrick Jansen was born about 1602. It also establishes the fact that Hendrick was in New Amsterdam by October 1638. The 1645 contract with Adam Brouwer tells us that he was from (probably born at) "Jeveren." In Hendrick's day, Jever was a city in Oldenburg (a county, later a Duchy). Today it is the capital of the district of Friesland in the German state of Lower Saxony. On 12 November 1645, Annetje Gerrits, wife of Hendrick Janszen, Smit, witnessed the baptism of Geertje, child of Theunis Thomaszen and Belitje Jacobs, at the Reformed Dutch Church at New Amsterdam. This record gives us the name of Hendrick Janszen's wife (see this timeline of events, with sources, for Annetje Gerrits). On 16 July 1664, Pieter Tonneman (schout at New Amsterdam) reported the death of Hendrick Janszen Smitt, to the court at New Amsterdam. He had committed suicide by hanging at the Kalkhoek.*** Between 1638 and 1664, Hendrick Janszen is found with numerous mentions in the records of New Amsterdam. He apparently owned multiple properties, and although referred to as a smitt (smith) he also had a tavern and rented out a house (or houses). On 16 March 1648, his name is among a long list of fellow tavern keepers and inhabitants of New Amsterdam agreeing to abide by ordinances put in place by the Director-General and Council. At the time of his death his the court and his immediate neighbors referred to him as an "old Burgher" of the city. One ongoing feud Hendrick had was with his neighbor, Hendrick Willemszen, the baker, who on more then one occasion complained to the court against Hendrick Janszen about water draining into his property. The matter of this complaint was still ongoing before the court at the time of Hendrick Janszen's death, and his widow, Annetje Gerrits, is then afterwards found in the court records regarding the matter. The last record found for Annetje Gerrits (thus far) is dated 3 July 1672.

Children of Hendrick Janszen and Annetje Gerrits have not been identified. However, on 16 July 1671 (Soert Olfertszen, pltf., vs. Annetje Gerrits, deft.) her "son-in-law" appeared and testified on Annetje's behalf. The son-in-law's name is not stated. Hendrick and Annetje may have had at least one daughter. However, it has to be remembered that the term "son-in-law" had multiple meanings during colonial times. It could refer to, as we know today, the husband of one's daughter. But, it could also, as a legal definition, refer to one's step-son. If Hendrick Janszen did have children in New Amsterdam, we could expect to find them with the patronymic, Hendrickszen or Hendricks (or some variation thereof). Some of Hendrick's properties are relatively well defined. We at least know the names of some of his immediate neighbors. Perhaps there are later deeds that can be found that record the transfer of one or more of his properties by heirs. Annetje Gerrits appears as a witness at a handful of baptisms at the New Amsterdam Reformed Dutch Church, however, in none of them is the mother's name recorded with the patronymic, Hendricks. If Annetje had any family relationship to any of the parents in these baptism records, it is not immediately apparent. (See the last paragraph below).

The given names Hendrick and Jan, are two of the most common, possibly the two most common given names found in New Amsterdam. Therefore, to no surprise, we find that the name Hendrick Janszen, is also very common. There are in fact a number of different men with that name living in the (relatively) small community of New Amsterdam from 1638 to 1664 (and beyond). One other, for example, was Hendrick Janszen, tailor (snyder), who is easily separated out from the other Hendrick Janszens by the addition of his occupation after his name. Our Hendrick Janszen, smith (smitt) is distinguished from the other Hendrick Janszens in the same way. There are, however, one, two, or three other Hendrick Janszens that should be mentioned.

On 12 November 1642, "Hendrick Jansen from Oldenborch," age 20, a soldier, admitted to selling powder to (Jan) Schepmoes. Hendrick was ordered to perform his guard duty and remain at the Fort until the next court session.**** "Oldenborch" would be Oldenburg, and as mentioned above, our Hendrick Janszen was from Jever, then a city in the county of Oldenburg. In this case I would suspect that the Oldenburg being referred to was the city of the name, and not the county, and we cannot assume that this man was also from Jever. Born about 1622, "Hendrick Jansen from Oldenborch" was not the same man, "Hendrick Jansen from Jeveren, locksmith," who sold Adam Brouwer a house lot in February 1645.

On 25 August 1656 a patent was granted to Hendrick Jansen van Jeveren for a piece of land beyond Hellgate on Long Island.***** The property was bounded by properties belonging to Lieven Jansz and Adrian Dircksz. It was in the then town of Newtown, a predominately "English" town. Hendrick Jansen is found in the records there, sometime recorded with the name, Henry Johnson (an English equivalent to Hendrick Jansen) right through to 1677 when he is an "appellant" in a suit with William Hallet. He is on the rate list at Newtown in 1662, 1666 and 1667 as Henry Johnson. The undated will of Thomas Lawrence of Newtown (proved 25 February 1703) mentions a lot he bought of Hendrick Johnson. It is apparent that there were (at least) two men named Hendrick Jansen, both originally from Jeveren, who lived in New Netherland at the same time. By locating and considering all of the records that belong to each, we can easily separate the two. For a timeline of events and sources see, "Hendrick Jansen Van Jeveren, a.k.a. Henry Johnson, of Newtown, L. I." (PDF).

On 8 January 1667, a patent was confirmed for Hendrick Jansen Van Jeveren, for property at New Castle upon the Delaware, bought from Jacob Aldrichs.****** This Hendrick Jansen, from Jeveren, was living on the Delaware river as early as 1662 when he witnessed the "death-bed" testimony of Harmen Hendricksen. He took the oath at Delaware, as Henry Johnson, on 1 October 1664, and is found on the 1671 Delaware census as Henrich Janssen. Peter S. Craig [1671 Census of the Delaware. Monograph Series no. 4. Philadelphia: Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania, 1999, pp. 62-63] claims that this Hendrick Jansen (Henry Johnson) was the same man who was granted land near Hellgate (above). Both men are named Hendrick Jansen, a.k.a. Henry Johnson, and yes both are from Jeveren, but proof that they are one and the same is lacking, or at least was not offered by Peter S. Craig in his review of the 1671 Delaware census. Hendrick Jansen (Henry Johnson) is found in a number of records at New Castle, Delaware between 1662 and 1677. They somewhat overlap the records of Hendrick Jansen (Henry Johnson) found at Newtown. It is conceivable that the same man inhabited both places, but more certain proof is needed. Peter S. Craig tells us that Henry Johnson of New Castle married an Elizabeth Carter of Virginia and later moved to Baltimore County, Maryland where he died 18 January 1691, leaving sons named Joseph Johnson and Henry Johnson. For a timeline of events and sources see "Hendrick Jansen Van Jeveren, a.k.a. Henry Johnson, of New Castle, Delaware" (PDF).

There were at least two, very possibly three, men named Hendrick Jansen, from Jever, plus a soldier named Hendrick Jansen, from Oldenburg, who lived in New Netherland at the same time during the mid 1600s.

Back in the first paragraph we asked, can Hendrick Jansen, the man from whom Adam Brouwer bought his first property in New Netherland, provide us with new leads regarding Adam Brouwer's origins? The records of Hendrick Jansen fail to answer this question. They do, however, offer a few things to consider.

That Hendrick and Adam agreed to the contract of sale, "in love and friendship," tells us that they were  friends. However, it does not tell us the duration of that friendship. It does not tell us when, and where, they first met. It should also be noted that three months after their contract, Adam Brouwer sued Hendrick Jansen, in court, for delivery of the deed to the property. Adam wanted the deed despite the fact that he had completed paying for the property. How is it that two "loving friends" could not settle this without the aid of the court? In addition, between 1646 and 1653 Adam Brouwer had four children baptized at the New Amsterdam Reformed Dutch Church, probably just a five minute walk from where Hendrick Jansen lived. Yet, Hendrick does not appear as a witness at any of the baptisms. So, just how close, or long of a friendship did they actually have?

We know that Adam Brouwer came to New Amsterdam from Maranhão in Brazil, and the circumstances of events regarding the departure of the West India Company's employees from this location imply that Adam left Maranhão, went to Curaçao, and in July 1644 was sent to New Amsterdam. Adam was apparently in New Amsterdam for only seven months prior to his contract with Hendrick Jansen. Hendrick, on the other hand, had been in New Amsterdam for at least seven years, the first record of his presence there dating to October 1638. The records of New Amsterdam previous to 1638 are lost. Because of this we cannot know just when Hendrick came to New Amsterdam. We have no evidence that Hendrick Jansen was in Brazil (at least none has been found as of yet). We also know that Hendrick was born about 1602, and if we accept that Adam Brouwer was born  around 1620, we can see that there was about an eighteen year difference in age between these friends. Unless the two knew each other prior to 1638, a time when Adam was probably only a teenager and Hendrick a man in his thirties, and in Europe (perhaps in Amsterdam), then it is more likely that the two first met only after Adam Brouwer arrived at New Amsterdam, and so knew each other for only seven or so months prior to their contract.

We also know that both Adam and Hendrick each gave power to one Geurt Servaessen, of Amsterdam, to collect money on their separate behalves. No other inhabitant of New Amsterdam gives such power to Geurt. Did both Adam and Hendrick know Geurt personally, back in Amsterdam? Did Hendrick know Geurt prior to his arrival in New Amsterdam, and did he recommend Geurt to Adam? Or did Adam know Geurt, and recommend him to Hendrick? While one of the two (Adam or Hendrick) most likely knew Geurt personally, it may be that both of them did not. Enough is not yet known about Geurt Servaessen to determine what type of relationship (if any) he had with either Adam Brouwer or Hendrick Jansen, prior to 1645.

____________________



A search of the "Netherlands Births and Baptisms, 1564-1910" at FamilySearch.org, has found one record of potential interest. Found is an index entry for the baptism of Trijn (indexed as Trijn Jansen), child of Heinrik Jansen and Anne Gerrits. The date of the baptism is 17 September 1623, at Amsterdam. Taking this information to the Doopregisters found at the Amsterdam Archives website, we can find this record by searching for Heinrik Jansz as vader (father), with date 17-9-1623, and two results are given, one of which is the above record found at FamilySearch.org. Hover your cursor over the second entry and you will see that the baptism took place at the Oude Kerk (old church). Hervormd tells us that it was a Reformed congregation. The record is found in DTB 6, p. 58. For a few euros a digital copy of the DTB 6, p. 58 can be ordered, and a PDF of the image can be found here. The record of interest is on the left hand page where just below the second solid line you can find the date "17 September." The record begins on the sixth line down from that solid line. A translation provided to me by Cor Snabel filled in the remaining information. The father is Heinrik Jansz, his profession is ships carpenter, the mother is Anne Gerrits, the witnesses are Ael Heinrix and Geert Jans, and the child's name is Trijn. This record is of potential interest only because the names of the parents match those of Hendrick Janszen, Smit and Annetje Gerrits of New Amsterdam, and the date (17 Sept. 1623) is prior to any possible immigration to New Amsterdam by this couple, and is late enough (Hendrick was born ca. 1602) for Hendrick Janszen, Smit to be the father. In addition, I have not been able to locate other baptism records for this couple (Heinrik Jansz and Anne Gerrits) by searching the Doopregisters or the FamilySearch.org database. A conflict here is the fact that the father in this record was a ships carpenter, while Hendrick Janszen of New Amsterdam was a Smit, a smith. It should be emphasized that there is not enough information to either connect or disassociate the Amsterdam baptism record with Hendrick Janszen, Smit of New Amsterdam. The baptism record is presented here as simply a possible starting place for anyone interested in exploring the origins of Hendrick Janszen, Smit.

* Van Laer, Arnold J.F., Kenneth Scott (Ed.) and Kenn Stryker-Rodda (Ed.). Register of the Provincial Secretary, 1642-1647. New York Historical Manuscripts, Vol. 2. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974), pp. 290-292, 468.
**Van Laer, Arnold J.F., Kenneth Scott (Ed.) and Kenn Stryker-Rodda (Ed.). Register of the Provincial Secretary, 1648-1660. New York Historical Manuscripts, Volume 3. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974), pp. 39-40. In June 1647, Bartel Loursen acknowledged a debt to Hendrick Jansz, smith, for board (pp.41-42). It appears that Bartel had served, presumably as a sailor, on the Princess which sailed from New Amsterdam late in August 1647 and was wrecked off the coast of Wales in September 1647. Probably Bartel Loursen was lost in the shipwreck and Hendrick was looking to collect his wages to satisfy the debt owed to him by Bartel.
***Kalkhoek, Dutch for Chalk Point, was a hill near the Collect Pond which was a large fresh water pond in lower Manhattan.
**** van Laer, Arnold J. F., Kenneth Scott (Ed.) and Kenn Stryker-Rodda (Ed.). Council Minutes, 1638-1649. New York Historical Manuscripts, Dutch, Vol. 4. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974), p. 173.
*****Gehring, Charles T. Land Papers. New York Historical Manuscripts, Dutch, Vols. GG, HH & II. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1980), p. 83
******General Assembly, State of Delaware. Original Titles in Delware Commonly Known as Duke of York record, being an authorized transcript from the official archives of the state of Delaware, and comprising the letters patent, permits commissions, surveys, plats and confirmations by the Duke of York and other high officials, from 1646 to 1679. (Wilmington: Sunday Star Print, 1903), p. 123.

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Sunday, October 11, 2015

The Records of New Amsterdam from 1653 to 1674 Anno Domini

The Records of New Amsterdam from 1653 to 1674 Anno Domini is a seven volume series edited by Berthold Fernow. The volumes were published under the authority of the City of New York, by Knickerbocker Press in 1897. Each volume is titled, Minutes of the Court of Burgomasters and Schepens, followed by a date range that the volume covers. Volume seven also includes Administrative Minutes, March 8, 1657, to Jan. 28, 1661, Inclusive, and the Index for the entire seven volume series.* Digital versions can be accessed online. Quick links can be found on the PDF page "Links to Published Sources Available Online," which can be downloaded. The abbreviation, RNA, is used for Records of New Amsterdam on this page.

The Court of Burgomasters and Schepens was essentially the municipal government of New Amsterdam. It consisted of two burgomasters, five schepens and a schout. It regulated affairs and was the court for both civil and criminal cases. For more on this court please see this 1909 write up by Henry Wilson Scott, placed online by the Historical Society of the New York Courts. It also includes links to the digitized versions. The courts existence began in 1653, lasting through the Dutch period of rule and through the first period of English rule and the short second period of Dutch rule in 1674. It ended when the English regained control of New Netherland in late 1674.

There are a handful of entries for the surname Brouwer in the index.

Volume 1, page 371 is a tax list dated 12 October 1655. On the list is Willem Brouwer "was excused." On the same tax list is Jan Gerritsen Brouwer "voluntary" - fl. 12. At page 392 of volume 1 is a suit by Willem Brouwer, plaintiff, against Isaac Mense, defendant, in which Willem Brouwer says that he sold the defendant 50 ps. of dry merchantable hides for fl. 700 in good Zeawan (seawant, or wampum), on condition that whoever should go back on the bargain should forfiet a "tun of beer." Isaac Mense, the defendant says that at the time the bargain was made he was drunk, and thought the deal was for 100 hides for gl. 700. Witnesses state that the bargain was to pay 700 gl. for 50 hides, but afterwards Isaac Mense said he was mistaken. The court voided the deal and fined Isaac Mense fl. 25 "for the behoof of the poor with costs incurred herein." The court date for this hearing was 8 November 1655.

Both Jan Gerritsen Brouwer and Willem Brouwer are found in Volume 2. At page 67 we find, Thomas Appelgat, plaintiff, vs. Willem Brouwer, defendant. Defendant's first default (he was not present). "Plaintiff at his request was allowed to sue out an arrest." The nature of the suit is not stated. The court date was 20 March 1656.
At page 26, Jan Gerritsen Brouwer is listed among those voted for, for the position of Schepen, by Allard Anthony. The vote totals are on page 27. Jan Gerritsen Brouwer received just this one vote. The vote was conducted on 31 January 1656. Schepen is a Dutch term for a municipal office holder. In an English municipal government it would most closely correspond to the position of an alderman or councilman. On page 113, Jan Gerritsen Brouwer, plaintiff, vs. Pieter Van der Linde, defendant, with the defendant in default. The case involves a hogshead of tobacco. The court date was 19 June 1656. The case is resumed on 26 June 1656 (page 123). Pieter Van der Linde was an inspector who first marked a certain hogshead of tobacco as "good," but then later marked it as "not good." Since the inspector (Pieter Van der Linde) is appointed by the Director General and his Council, the matter is referred to them.

The only entry in Volume 3 is for Willem Brouwer, or more specifically his wife, whose name is not recorded (page 237). The court date is 9 November 1660. "Burgomaster Allard Anthony, arrestant and pltf. vs. Willem Brouwer's wife, arrested and deft. Deft. in default. Pltf. requests that the arrest be decalared valid. The Court declare the arrest valid." The nature of the case is not stated. This is the last entry that we find for Willem Brouwer in the New Amsterdam city records.

Volume 4 includes one entry for Adam Brouwer. At page 21, court date of 31 January 1662, "Hans Stein, arrestant and pltf. vs. Adam Brouwer, arrested and deft. Pltf. demands from deft. a balance of five skepels of winter wheat according to particulars of a/c" (account). The defendant (Adam Brouwer) states that he sent it off and he requests in writing two arbitrators. The court refers the matter to Joannes de Peister (Johannes de Peyster) and Jacob Strycker, "both old Schepens of this City," to decide the case and reconcile the parties, and if that is not possible to render a report of their verdict to the Court. The case does not reappear in the court records, so the problem was probably resolved.

The last entry for a Brouwer is found in Volume 5 at page 188. The court date is 14 February 1665. Here, Asser Levy (Asher Levy, an early Jewish resident of New Amsterdam), states that he sent a legal letter to the Court of Amersfoort (Flatlands on Long Island) notifying "Aucke Jans that he must obey the order of this Court dated 17th January last, and says, he has not obtained any result therefrom." Asser Levy wants further instructions from the court on what to do next. He also states that "he has attached the monies of Aucke Jans in the hands of Jan Brouwer, which attachment he prays may be declared valid," which the Court does. This Jan Brouwer, would no doubt be Jan Brouwer of Flatlands, L. I.

The surname, Brouwer, is not found in either volume 6 or volume 7.

*Howard Swain has pointed out to me that the Administrative Minutes section of volume 7 is not well covered by the index. It does appear that not all mentions of persons found in the Administrative Minutes are indexed. 


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Friday, October 2, 2015

The Dongan Papers, 1683-1688, Part 2

The Dongan Papers, 1683-1688, Part 2, Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Thomas Dongan, edited by Peter R. Christoph, was published by Syracuse University Press in 1996. There is no digital version of the book available online. Physical copies can be found for sale through the usual online booksellers. The Dongan Papers, 1683-1688 Part I: Admiralty Court and Other Records of the Administration of New York Governor, also edited by Peter R. Christoph was published in 1993. I have not had access to this volume. There is no digital edition. Physical copies can be purchased online.

It is recommended that you read the introduction. It provides background on the structure of the colony and on the political situation during the period of Governor Dongan. For example, with the arrival of Gov. Dongan, New York's jurisdiction over New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware was ended. However, Pemaquid (Maine), Nantucket, Martha's Vinyard and the Elizabeth Isles, were under New York jurisdiction. Also, I was previously unaware that there was a "large Roman Catholic minority, which for the first time would be served openly..." in New York during these years. The Dongan Papers, 1683-1688 covers Volume 35 of O'Callaghan's, New York Historical Manuscripts.

 The first entry, found on page 3, is an "Indictment against Arian Ryersen of Flatbush, and Aras Jansz, Rine Aranse, Joseph Hegemans and Cornelius Barnse for Breaking into the house of Peter Brewer." The indictment states that on 17 September 1687, "by Force and armes att Flatbush in the County aforesaid riotously routously and Unlawfully assembled themselves to the disturbance of the peace of our lord the King and that the said Arian Ryersen together with Aras Janse Rine Aranse Joseph Hegeman Cornelius Barnse a certain house of one Peeter Brewer by Force and armes then and there broake and destroyed to the grievous damage of the said Peeter Brewer against the peace of our said lord the King and to the evill Example of others of the Subjects of our lord the King in the like kind." It is signed Billa vera (the bill is true, i.e. provable evidence has been given) by Koert Stevensen, Witnesses: Peeter Brewer. The Peter Brewer in this record is most likely the son of Jan Brouwer of Flatlands. Although the indictment reads, "att Flatbush," and if this was intended for the location of the break in, it may be an error for Flatlands as Peter Brouwer took the Oath of Allegiance in late September 1687 at Flatlands. However, Adam Brouwer of Gowanus, also had a son named Peter, and he is found taking the same Oath of Allegiance at Breucklin (see below). There are no men named Brouwer or Brewer taking the Oath at Flatbush in September 1687. Court Stevensz Van Voorhuys (the Koert Stevensen who presented the evidence) took the Oath at Flatlands. [A]driaen Reyersz (Arian Ryersen in the indictment), Aris Vanderbilt (Aras Jansz), Reynier Aertsen (Rine Aranse), Cornelis barensz van Wyck (Cornelius Barnse), and Joseph Hegeman took the Oath at Flatbush (see pages 106-107). The fact that it is Koert Stevensen, a resident of Flatlands, who is presenting the evidence, suggests that the incident took place at Flatlands and not at Breuckelen.

All of the other mentions of persons named Brouwer in this volume are found on two lists. The first, a "List of persons taking the Oath of Allegiance in Kings County," spans pages 106 to 114. This list is also found in O'Callaghan's Documentary History of the State of New York, Volume I (1850), beginning at page 659, and titled "The Roll." O'Callaghan's version has also been reproduced in Lists of Inhabitants of Colonial New York, Excerpted from The Documentary History of the State of New York (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 2007). This list, or roll, is particularly valuable in that it states whether each of those taking the oath were "native" meaning born in America, or if not, how long they had lived here. There is a difference in the two versions here in the editions published (first) by O'Callaghan and (later) by Christoph. Looking at the very first entry on the roll as transcribed by O'Callaghan (1850), he writes, "Willem Jacobs Van boerum was in this country 38 Jeare." Christoph (1996) writes this as,"Willem Jacobs Van boerum was in this county 38 Jeare." So, the question is: were the oath takers in the country (meaning America), or just in the county (meaning Kings Co., L. I.) for the period of time stated? I tend to think that country is the correct interpretation, meaning that these persons were born overseas, most probably in Europe, while those labeled "native" were born in America, possibly but not necessarily in Kings County. It should also be noted that only non-English persons were required to take this oath. All of those taking the oath were of Dutch, German, French, Scandinavian, and possibly a few other, non-English ethnicity.

The Oath of Allegiance in Kings County is organized by towns. The towns at that time were Flatbush (Flathbush by Christoph and fflackbush by O'Callaghan), Brooklyn (Breucklin by Christoph and Breucklijn by O'Callaghan), New Utrecht (New Uytrecht by Christoph and New Uijtrecht by O'Callaghan), Bushwick (boswycke by Christoph and Boswijck by O'Callaghan), Flatlands (Flackland by Christoph and fflackland by O'Callaghan), and Gravesend (GravesEnd by Christoph and gravens End by O'Callaghan). Brouwers are found in two towns - Brooklyn and Flatlands.

In Brooklyn (pages 108-9) are Adam Brouwer, 45 Jeare (years in the country); Jacob Brouwer, native; Adam Brouwer Junior, native; Pieter Brouwer (native), Abram Brouwer (native), all sons of Adam Brouwer. Also in Brooklyn are Ephraim Hendrickx (son-in-law of Adam Brouwer), Matthys Cornelissen (future son-in-law of Adam Brouwer) and Josias Dreths (son-in-law of Adam Brouwer).

In Flatlands (pages 112-13) are Jan Brouwer, 30 Jeare (years in the country); Dirck Brouwer, native; Pieter Brouwer, native; Hendrick Brouwer, native, all sons of Jan Brouwer; and Theunis Jansz van Amach (son-in-law of Jan Brouwer).

At pages 160-61 is a list of persons who took the Oath of Allegiance on 26 September 1687 in Orange County (which at that time included present day Rockland County, New York). On this list is Matthis Brower. It has to be assumed that this is Matthys Brouwer, son of Adam Brouwer who was baptized in 1649. A bit later on Matthys Brouwer is associated with the Old Dutch Church at Sleepy Hollow (Tarrytown, Westchester Co., New York), which would be on the opposite side of the Hudson River from Orange County.*

The "Valuation of Breuckelen Taken 26 Sept 1683" begins at page 304. This is a rate list, or tax roll, and it is also found the volumes by O'Callaghan mentioned above. On page 305 is Jacob Brouwer. Mattys Brouwer is on page 306. Both are sons of Adam Brouwer who is found on page 307. From this list and the oath of 1687, we can see that Matthys Brouwer was in Breuckelen in 1683, and had relocated to Orange County by September 1687. Jesies Dregz (Josias Dreths above) and Evert Hendrickse (Ephraim Hendrickx above) are both on page 308. Mattys Cornelissen is not found on this list.

The "Rate List of Amesfort 25 September 1683" begins at page 311. "Amesfort" is Amersfoort, which was another name for Flatlands. Amersfoort and Flatlands are the same town. At page 312 is Jan Brouwer, with "2 men, 2 horses, 4 cows, 1 ox, 1 of 1 year and 2 morg(ens) of land." One morgen (a Dutch unit for measuring area) equals roughly two acres. "Of 1 year," means a one year old cow, which because she will soon be able to breed, is more valuable than a "cow" which is over the age of three, or an "ox" which is cattle, usually a castrated bull trained and used for draft work. Also on this list (page 313) is "Teunis Jansen; 1 man." He most likely Theunis Jansz van Amach, listed above in 1687, the son-in-law of Jan Brouwer. He has no rate-able assets and is listed along with Pieter Nefyes and Pieter Tul, under Willem Gerrits who has "2 men, 5 horses, 2 of 1 year, 9 cows, and 8 of 3 years, and 4 of 2 years, and 5 of 1 year, and 30 morg. land." Willem Gerrits was among the more wealthy (for lack of better word, wealthy being relative to others around him) men in Amersfoort, and it may be that Teunis Jansen, Pieter Nefyes and Pieter Tul were employed by and lived on Willem Gerrits' property. None of Jan Brouwer's sons are identified on this list. Jan Brouwer's son, Dirck, would have had the patronymic "Dirck Jansen," and there are two men by that name, Dirck Jansen, one found in Breuckelen and the other in Amersfoort. However, I doubt either is Jan Brouwer's son, Dirck. The Dirck Jansen in Breuckelen is most probably Dirck Jansen Woertman, who took the oath of allegiance at Breuckelen in 1687. The Dirck Jansen in Amersfoort is most probably Dirck Jansen Ammerman who took the oath of allegiance at Flatlands in 1687. Both of these men were considerably older than Dirck Brouwer, and the assessments for each would be in line with the age difference.

*Tarrytown is on the east side of the Hudson River, opposite Rockland County which is on the west side. Rockland County was formed out of Orange County in 1798.

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