Sunset at Gowanus Bay

Sunset at Gowanus Bay
Sunset at Gowanus Bay, Henry Gritten, 1851

Saturday, July 7, 2018

19th Century Wills Recorded in New York County, New York, 1800-1829

Abstracts of wills for BREWER and BROWER found in the books of the Surrogate's Court, New York County, New York, for the years 1800 to 1829. Links take you to digital images of the wills found online at in their collection titled, New York Probate Records, 1629-1971 > New York County. Please note that the page numbers given below refer to the "old" page numbers found in the margins of the will books. The date generally is the date the will was recorded which often is the date it was proved before the Surrogate's Court Judge.

Samuel Brewer, 24 April 1815, Vol. 52, p. 240. Dated 1 March 1815, proved 24 April 1815, calls himself Samuel Brewer of the City of New York, merchant. "To my sister Phebe, wife of David Birdsall, the interest and profits of five thousnad dollars to be set apart and improved for this purpose by my executors...I give and bequeth the said sum of five thousand dollars to all her children then surviving in equal proportions. To beloved wife Elizabeth all household furniture. To my two children Elizabeth and Mary (both under age), and to their respective heirs..." Appoints his father in law John Titus and friend Alexander Cranston executors. Signed Samuel Brewer, witnessed by Maxwell Frokes, T.L. Ogden, H. Masor. This Samuel Brewer is a son of James Brewer and Hannah Lee, who can be found on the post of June 29, 2018. He is a descendant of John Brewer of Sudbury, Massachusetts, and is an example of a Brewer found in New York City who IS NOT a descendant of one of the early New Netherland Brouwer families. As stated in the will, his wife was Elizabeth Titus, daughter of John Titus. I have not had the opportunity to research her ancestry any further. She may have remarried as Samuel Brewer appears to have been only in his mid to late twenties when he died.

Jacob Brewer, 17 May 1815, Vol. 52, p. 275. Dated 31 March 1815, proved 17 May 1815, calls himself Jacob Brewer of the City of New York being weak in body but of sound mind. Gives "first to wife Abigail Brewer the interest of all my money at interest for her use during the time she remains my widow. Second, to my daughter Sally, the six green chairs now in my house, my mahogany tea table, one bed, bedstead and bedding. Third, after the death of my wife or so soon as she ceases to be my widow I give and bequeth to each of my daughters one hundred and twenty five dollars. Fourth, all the residue of my property after my wife's death or so soon as she ceases to be my widow I give and bequeth to my sons equally divided amongst them share and share alike." Appoints his sons John Brewer and Peter Brewer as executors. Signed by his mark, witnessed by Adam Hartell, and Lawrence Wiseburn of New York City, butcher. Jacob Brewer was baptized 22 August 1744 at the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow (now the Tarrytown Reformed Church), and was the son of Johannes Brouwer and Elizabeth Conklin, and is a great-great grandson of Adam Brouwer of Gowanus, Long Island. His wife was Elizabeth Yerks, a daughter of John Jurckse/Yerks and Susanna Forshay. Jacob and Abigail had ten children baptized at the Sleepy Hollow Church between 1774 and 1798. His father is the Johannes Brewer found on the post of June 29, 2018.

John Brower, 4 October, 1815, Vol. 52, p. 495. Dated 10 November 1812, proved 4 Oct 1815, calls himself "John Brower of the City of New York in the State of New York, gentleman, being of sound disposing mind and memory and considering the uncertainty of this transitory life...." Mentions his wife Anne Brower; Mary Anderson "whom I have brought up, and who now lives with me, the annual sum of one hundred twenty dollars during the term of her natural life to be paid to her quarter yearly"; daughter Mary the wife of Benjamin Romaine of New York City, gentleman, and Dinah the wife of Peter Walker of New York City, "Taylor" and their heirs. Wife Ann Brower named as executrix with "respected friends" Peter Talman of Tappan in Rockland County, merchant and Peter H. Wendover of New York City, sailmaker as executors. Witnessed by Cornelius Van Valen, David Quackenbush, physician, and Adolph Brower. John was baptized as Johannes on 9 September 1733 at the Reformed Dutch Church at Schraalenburgh in Bergen County, New Jersey. He is a son of Samuel Brouwer and Maria Hartje and a great-great grandson of Adam Brouwer and Magdalena Verdon. John married Antje (Anne) Lozier in 1760 at the New York City Reformed Dutch Church. They had seven children, the first six baptized between 1760 and 1774 at New York, and the youngest, Samuel, baptized at Schraalenburgh in 1779. The family probably left New York City for Bergen County while the British occupied the city during the Revolutionary War. Only two children are mentioned in the will. Antje/Anne Lozier was a daughter of Benjamin Lozier/Losier and Dina de Groot. Dina's first husband was Pieter Brouwer, a brother of John's father, Samuel Brouwer.

Cornelia Brower, 30 April 1816, Vol. 53, p. 174. Dated 14 April 1812, proved 12 Apr 1816. Cornelia Brower of the City of New York, widow, weak in health but of sound mind, memory and understanding. To my daughter Helen Knapp, widow, my bureau and my set of bed curtains. Direct my executrix to, within a reasonable and convenient time after my decease, to sell and dispose of my real estate in the City of New York consisting of a house, lot of ground in First Street. Proceeds to pay debts and funeral expenses, residue to my daughter Cornelia, 1/3 part; daughter Helen, 1/3 part; to grandchildren Abraham Knapp and Charles Knapp, children of my said daughter Helen to be divided equally. Appoints daughter Helen Knapp as executor. Wit.: John Boyd, Elizabeth Vanderhoof, S. Cowdrey. Cornelia is Cornelia Anderson, baptized 26 March 1740 at the New York City Reformed Dutch Church, a daughter of Peter Anderson (recorded as Pieter Andriesse) and Cornelia Holmes (recorded as Cornelia Homs). Cornelia married Charles Brouwer at the New York Reformed Dutch Church on 24 December 1761, and the record here calls her Catharina Anderson. The baptism record of their daughter, Cornelia, 14 April 1765 at New York, records her as Cornelia Anderson. So, it appears that the marriage record, or perhaps the transcription of it, was in error. Charles Brouwer has not yet been placed among the Brouwer families of New York. However, he apparently had a sister Sara Brouwer who had married Cornelia's brother, Joris/George Anderson, and perhaps another sister, Jannetje Brouwer who was a witness to the baptism of George and Sarah (Brouwer) Anderson's son, Jacobus, in 1766. The daughter, Helena Knapp, mentioned in the will, married Lockwood Knapp in the English Lutheran Church, New York City, on 13 July 1799. No record of baptism has been found for Helena. The daughters mentioned in the will are, to date, the only two known children of Charles and Cornelia (Anderson) Brouwer.

Abraham Brower, 10 June 1816, Vol. 53, p. 219. Dated 3 October 1815, proved 10 Jun 1816. Abraham Brower of New York City, blacksmith, being of sound and disposing mind and understanding. Just debts and funeral expenses to be paid. To son John D. Brower, his heirs and assigns, that lot of ground and livery stable now occupied by John Curtis, distinguished on a certain map by lot no. 66 on the southerly side of Partition Street in the Third Ward of New York City containing in breadth in front and rear each, twenty-five feet, and in length on each side, 77 feet. Also to son John D. Brower that other lot and blacksmith shop occupied by him, lot no. 67 on the southerly side of Partition Street in the Third Ward, adjoining on the west side of the above mentioned lot. To wife Nelly Brower, $100, payable within 40 days of my decease, also, as long as she remains my widow, that lot of ground and brick coach and 220 chair house, lot 68 on the southerly side of Partition Street in the Third Ward. Upon her death or remarriage said lot to my son Jacob V. Brower, his heirs and assigns. Also to said wife, Nelly Brower, that dwelling house and lot no. 69 on the southerly side of Partition Street in the Third Ward and upon her death or remarriage to my daughter Hannah Brower. To wife, Nelly Brower, lot and dwelling house now occupied by John Curtis, no. 3 on the southerly side of Partition Street adjoining on the westerly side the coach makers shop occupied by my son James Brower and on the easterly side and adjoining to the house lot of Andrew Hopper, and after her death or remarriage to my son Richard Brower, his heirs and assigns. To said wife, Nelly Brower, lot and dwelling house and stable now occupied by Robert Dawson, lot no. 7 on the southerly side of Dey Street in the Third Ward of New York City, and after her death or remarriage to my son Jacob V. Brower, son Richard Brower, and daughter Hannah Brower. My wife is directed to apply the rents from said properties for her maintanence and that of my daughter Hannah Brower. To said son James Brower, lot and coach makers shop now occupied by him, no. 70 on the southerly side of Partition Street. Also to son James Brower, lot and dwelling house no. 41 on the northerly side of Dey Street, and James to pay off the mortgage of $1250. After death of son James, said two lots to sons Jacob V. Brower and Richard Brower. To son Abraham Brower, $50, and release him of all monies he now owes me, and that is all I intend for him to have from my estate. Sons John D. Brower, Jacob V. Brower and Richard Brower appointed as executors. Wit.: Robert Dawson, John Curtis, Benj. Ferris. (Included is a hand drawn map of the streets mentioned with location of the properties mentioned. Partition and Dey Streets are parrellel to each other and intersect Broadway). Proved by Benjamin Ferris of New York City, councilor at law, and John Curtis of New York City, livery stable keeper. There were many men named Abraham Brower. This Abraham was baptized 30 November 1735 at the Tappan Reformed Dutch Church, the son of Jacob Brouwer and Jannetje Hartje. He is a great-great grandson of Adam Brouwer, by way of his son Pieter Brouwer. Abraham's grandparents were Abraham Brouwer and Lea Demarest. Abraham was married twice and had children by both of his wives. His first wife was Gerreberg Brouwer, a daughter of (another) Abraham Brouwer and Elizabeth Ackerman. They were second cousins and had three children. Abraham's second wife was Neeltje Duryea, a daughter of Johannes Duryea and Antje Voorhees. Abraham and Neeltje were married in 1771 and had six children born between 1772 and 1787.

John J. Brower, 14 April 1823, Vol. 58, p. 92. The will begins at the very bottom of this page. Dated 14 May 1822, proved 14 Apr 1823, called John J. (I.?) Brower of New York City, gentleman, mentions sisters Leah, Jane (Brouwer) Vredenburg, niece Jane V. Joralemon, Anna Eliza Petit niece of late wife, and four grandchildren: John Brower son of late son John Brower, Jr., deceased; Catherine Forman; and Effie, now wife of James Quackenbos, formerly Effie Forman; daughters of late daughter Jane, deceased, the late wife of George Forman; also John Brower Galatian, son of late daughter Catherine, deceased, the former wife of William W. Galatian. John J. (or I., the letters J and I were often interchanged) Brower was also a son of Jacob Brouwer and Jannetje Hartje, and a brother of the Abraham Brower mentioned above. John's wife was Catherine Duryea, a daughter of Johannes Duryea and Antje Voorhees, and a sister of Neeltje Duryea, who was the second wife of the above Abraham Brower. John and Catherine were married in 1769 at the New York Reformed Dutch Church and had eleven children born between 1770 and 1796. Only three lived into adulthood, and all three pre-deceased John, but left grandchildren mentioned in the will. Catherine (Duryea) Brower died in 1800.

John N. Brower, 25 February 1828, Vol. 62, p. 37. Dated 21 February 1828, proved 25 Feb 1828. John N. Brower of the City of New York, Grocer. Devises and bequeaths to his wife, Susan, "so long as she remains my widow, all right title and interest in and to the following leases of lots of ground belonging to me and the buildings thereon erected, to wit the lease of a lot of ground in Stanton Street and the house thereon erected and lease of the lot adjoining thereto (together with the appurtenances) in Stanton Street, all in the City and County of New York..." also all wearing apparel, beds, bedding, the "said Susan had when I married her," and all household furniture purchased by his wife Susan after their marriage, "to be held and used or disposed of by the said Susan for her own benefit in lieu of the said Susan's right and interest in my estate so long as the said Susan shall remain my widow." He next orders that his executors dispose of, either at public or private sale, the remainder of his estate both real and personal, with the proceeds to pay for funeral expenses and to pay off just debts with the remainder to be given to my "now brothers and sisters and not to my half brothers and sisters," but does not record their names. Should his wife die or remarry, the property devised to her is also to be given to "my now brothers and sisters." Appoints as executors "my true and faithful friends Benjamin Riggs, Matthew Curtis St. John and Hiram King, all of the City of New York." Witnesses: William S. Sears, William E. Sewall, Samuel H. Miller. John N. Brower was a son of Nazareth Brouwer (1756-1817) and Ginny/Jane Brouwer (1757-1795). Ginney was Nazareth's first of three wives. They were married in 1775 and had seven children. Ginney, or Jane, is said to be a daughter of Charles Brouwer and Jane Ryder, while Nazareth is a son of Cornelis Brouwer and Mary Archer. If correct, they were then first cousins. John N. Brower's wife, Susan, is known only from this will. Her family name has not been learned and there does not appear to be any record of children. John N. Brower and this larger inter-married family are descendants of Nazareth Brouwer and Anne Rozell. This, first, Nazareth Brouwer was a son of Nicholas Brouwer and Jannetje Caljer, and a grandson of Adam Brouwer and Magdalena Verdon.  This branch of the Adam Brouwer family has it's beginnings in Westchester County, probably in the area that is now the Bronx. Records from the early 1700s for this location, and for this Brouwer family are few, and the composition of the families descended from Nazareth is in part based upon unverified accounts of earlier researchers. We do, however, have a descendant of Cornelis Brouwer (mentioned above) who has taken a Y-Chromosome DNA test. His results match those of the other descendants of Adam Brouwer. The Charles Brouwer, husband of Cornelia (Anderson) Brower whose will is abstracted above, may somehow fit, somewhere, among this branch of Adam Brouwer's descendants. More research in Westchester County needs to be conducted, and if there is anyone out there with more insight or records, please use the Comments section to relate them to the rest of us.

We will continue through the 1800s in New York County in a future post.

BGB 592

Thursday, July 5, 2018

A Suggested Ancestry for Peter Brewer of Hardin Co., Kentucky

Peter Brewer of Hardin County, Kentucky was probably born during the decade of the 1750s, almost certainly in New Jersey, and possibly in Sussex County, or perhaps in an adjoining county in northern New Jersey. He has been mentioned in previous posts on this website, specifically on November 16, 2013; December 8, 2015; and May 4, 2017. He wrote his will on 2 November 1840 and it was proved in Hardin County on 19 April 1841, so he likely died during the first quarter of 1841. Exact dates of his birth and death are not known, and to my knowledge a burial location or grave marker has not been discovered. As of this post, the identity of his parents is still not known.

What is known is that Peter Brewer is a direct male descendant of Adam Brouwer of Gowanus, Long Island. This statement is proved by Y-DNA testing of no less than four direct male descendants of Peter Brewer, who are descended from two different sons of Peter, those sons being Valentine Brewer and Isaac Brewer. The Y-Chromosome DNA test results of all four match those of known direct male descendants of Adam Brouwer to the degree that it can be stated without question that Peter Brewer is also a descendant of Adam. But to repeat, to date we still do not known Peter Brewer's direct male line back to Adam Brouwer. Three of the tested descendants have taken advanced SNP testing (FTDNA's Big Y test) and are found on YFull's public Y-Tree as haplogroup E-BY6245. This haplogroup is a sub-clade of E-Y19643 which (as of this post) includes seven other direct male descendants of Adam Brouwer. (This updates the post of April 7, 2018).

We know that Peter Brewer had a brother named Samuel Brewer. Peter says as much in an affidavit found in his Samuel's Revolutionary War Pension Application file. In that application, Samuel states that he was born in Sussex County, New Jersey, but does not state his parent's names. Samuel was age 75 in 1832 when he filed this application. We also know that Peter had seven children, including six sons named Michael, Isaac, Benjamin, Samuel, John and Valentine.

A Benjamin Brewer, born 24 April 1755 (location not known), died 6 May 1834 in Washington County, Indiana (dates from his gravestone in the Cooley-Brewer Cemetery in Washington Co., Indiana). His wife was Catherine Mellinger, and they had nine known children including sons named William, Benjamin, Samuel, Peter, and John. A direct male descendant of this Benjamin has taken a Y-DNA test and his results also confirm that Benjamin is a direct male descendant of Adam Brouwer.

Benjamin Brewer, Samuel Brewer and Peter Brewer are all found on a tax roll from 1783 in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. Benjamin and Samuel are in Tyrone Township, while Peter lives in Huntington Township. On 20 February 1783, Samuel Brewer of Tyrone Twp., sold land to Benjamin Brewer (then) of Huntington Twp. A witness to the deed was a Peter "Bruin," probably meant to be Peter Brewer, or Bruer, as the surname was sometimes recorded, particularly in records found in Pennsylvania. While we know that Samuel and Peter were brothers, and although this deed does not state so specifically, it appears highly likely that Benjamin is also a brother of Samuel and Peter.

On 25 May 1778, in the soon afterwards extinct county of Yohogania, Virginia, administration of the estate of a Benjamin Bruer was granted to his widow Mary. A Mary Brewer is also found on that same 1783 tax roll in Huntington Twp., Westmoreland Co., Pennsylvania (along with Peter Brewer). We know that the Benjamin who died by 25 May 1778 was a married adult. We don't know when he was born, but we do know that he could not have been the Benjamin Brewer who was born in 1755 as he is known to have died in 1834. I would suggest that this Benjamin is older, an probably born by 1735. As we can clearly see that there are two men named Benjamin here, my suggestion is that Benjamin Bruer/Brewer, who died in 1778, and his wife Mary, are the parents of Peter Brewer, Samuel Brewer and Benjamin Brewer, and if correct then Benjamin must also be a descendant of Adam Brouwer.

Focus is now squarely on the given name Benjamin. We know that this name is uncommon among the descendants of Adam Brouwer found within the first four generations of Adam Brouwer's known descendants. Looking at Adam Brouwer's descendants we find only one named Benjamin, who was born by 1735. That would be Benjamin Brouwer, son of Pieter Brouwer and Elizabeth Quackenbosh, who was baptized at the New York Reformed Dutch Church on 11 February 1728. Benjamin would have been named (by tradition of that time and culture) for his maternal grandfather, Benjamin Quackenbosch. Pieter and Elizabeth (Quackenbosh) Brouwer's first two sons were both named Jacob (the first of the two having died early in infancy) and were named (by the same tradition) for Pieter's father, Jacob Brouwer. There is no other male descendant of Adam Brouwer, named Benjamin, who is known to have been born by 1735. With this, I am suggesting that the Benjamin Brouwer, baptized in New York in 1728, is the same Benjamin Bruer whose estate was administered in Yohoangia Co., Virginia in 1778, and is the father of Peter Brewer of Hardin County, Kentucky, Samuel Brewer (who died in 1835 and is buried at Harrodsburg, Kentucky) and Benjamin Brewer (1755-1834).

Benjamin Brouwer/Bruer/Brewer's grandparents would be the above mentioned Jacob Brouwer and Annatje Bogardus, and the above mentioned Benjamin Quackenbosh and Claasje Webber. His great-grandparents would then be Adam Brouwer and Magdalena Verdon; Willem Bogardus and Wynnetje Sybrants; Reynier Quackenbosh and Lysbet Masten; and Aernout Webber and Jannetje Cornelis.

I want to emphasize that the suggestion that Peter Brewer of Hardin County, Kentucky is a son of Benjamin Brouwer, baptized in 1728 at New York, has not been proved to a standard that would be accepted to a professional genealogist. It is a suggestion based upon all known information and evidence, both traditional and genetic, collected to date. I further suggest that descendants and others interested in further proof, focus their research in any and all records that exist for Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania and the old Yohoangia County, Virginia (from which Westmoreland County was formed). You might also check records in each of the counties where the three assumed brothers (Peter, Samuel and Benjamin) lived, for any possibility that a sibling is named. This would be Hardin County and Mercer County, Kentucky, and Washington County, Indiana. A check back in Sussex County, New Jersey should also be done but I have less confidence that it will yield anything that is not already known, or to say it another way, if something existed back in Sussex County, it would have been found by now.

Some additional notes:
-Pieter Brouwer, the father of Benjamin (bapt. 1728) left a will dated 12 February 1788. It is abstracted in the post of June 29, 2018. He does not mention his son Benjamin. This omission may be because Benjamin had died previously, and we know that Benjamin Bruer of Yohoangia County died in 1778 (ten years earlier). It also has to be remembered that not all children are always mentioned in a testator's will. While inclusion in a will can prove a relationship, exclusion from a will does not disprove a relationship.

-In addition to Peter, Samuel and Benjamin, a fourth brother may be Henry Brewer whose wife was Jane (Hurdley?). Henry lived in 1840 at Clay, Owen Co., Indiana. This Henry had a son named Benjamin born in 1796 in Fayette Co., Pennsylvania. Fayette County was created in September 1783 out of Westmoreland County. If you can follow this, Henry's son Benjamin's second wife was Elizabeth Roney/Rony, who was a daughter of James Roney and Margaret Brewer, and a granddaughter of Benjamin Brewer and Catherine Mellinger, with Benjamin being the assumed brother of Peter and Samuel. A direct male descendant of Henry Brewer has taken a Y-DNA test, and he too, matches the other descendants of Adam Brouwer.

-The current edition of the Brouwer Genealogy Database (presently offline) suggests that Peter Brewer of Hardin County may be a descendant of either Hendrick Brouwer (bapt. 1699) a son of Adam Brouwer and Marretje Hendricks and grandson of Adam Brouwer and Magdalena Verdon, or of Samuel Brouwer (bapt. 1706) a son of Willem Brouwer and Marthe Boulton (and grandson of Adam Brouwer and Magdalena Verdon). Both this Hendrick and Samuel (first cousins) are found in Somerset County, New Jersey in the mid 1700s. Somerset County, like Sussex County, is in West New Jersey. That, and some naming similarities (Samuel and Henry) led to this suggestion some years ago. While these two ideas are still possible, I'd say that they are now far more unlikely than the suggestion given above.

-Sussex County, New Jersey was formed in 1753 out of Morris County which had been set off from Hunterdon County in 1738/39. See pages 19 and 34-35 of this excellent PDF of New Jersey Civil Boundaries.

-For more on Yohogania County, see the Wikipedia page, and the wiki page at Family Search.

-There are Benjamin Brewers/Browers found among the descendants of Jan Brouwer of Flatlands, L. I. The earliest one that I can find is Benjamin, son of Jan Brouwer and Helena Van Cleef, who was baptized on 19 February 1738 by the Reformed Dutch Congregation of Freehold and Middletown, in Monmouth Co., New Jersey. Sponsors of the baptism were his mother's brother Benjamin Van Cleef (for whom he was named) and his wife Rachel Couwenhoven. This Benjamin Brewer/Brower married Maria Lane at Shrewsbury, New Jersey by a marriage license dated 16 Jan 1767. They had five children baptized between 1768 and 1785 at Freehold-Middletown. Obviously since he was living in 1785, this Benjamin cannot be the Benjamin Bruer/Brewer whose estate was administered in 1778 in Yohogania County. No record has yet been found of this Benjamin outside of Monmouth County, New Jersey. All other known men named Benjamin Brewer, Brower, Brouwer or Bruer were born much to late to be considered as the Benjamin Brewer of Yohogania County in 1778.

In conclusion: I suggest that Peter Brewer, his known brother Samuel Brewer, near certain brother Benjamin Brewer and likely brother Henry Brewer are all sons of Benjamin Bruer/Brewer (d. 1778, Yohogania Co., Virginia) and his wife Mary whose family name is not yet known. In turn, this Benjamin Bruer/Brewer is the Benjamin, son of Pieter Brouwer and Elizabeth Quackenbosh, who was baptized in the New York Reformed Dutch Church in 1728. Peter's direct line ancestry back to Adam Brouwer of Gowanus, L. I. would then be: Peter Brewer > Benjamin Bruer/Brewer > Pieter Brouwer > Jacob Brouwer > Adam Brouwer of Gowanus. Peter Brewer and his brothers are great-great grandsons of Adam Brouwer of Gowanus. While evidence that would meet modern genealogical standards for proof is lacking, this suggestion best fits the known evidence, both traditional and genetic, available at this time. Proof is probably only one or two documents or records short, that being records that show that the Benjamin Bruer/Brewer who died in 1778 is in fact a son of Pieter Brouwer and Elizabeth Quackenbosch, and records that show that this Benjamin is the father of Peter Brewer of Hardin Co., Kentucky. Such records may possibly exist in the probate, land or court files found in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, or perhaps in the adjacent county of Fayette, or perhaps in older records of Yohogania County that may be in a repository in some other county that was established when Yohogania ceased to exist. Should anyone find any such records, please let us know.

BGB 591

PDF version of this post

Wednesday, July 4, 2018

Updating the Status of the Databases

You know at the time I wrote the June 9th post regarding the status of Brouwer Genealogy and particularly the associated databases, I had a feeling that there would soon be a change and some movement at RootsWeb. And that is just what we are now seeing.

Now when you try to access one of the databases or pages hosted by RootsWeb's Free Pages, you are redirected to the sign in page. That's not much of an improvement, but head over to the RootsWeb page and you'll see that they have updated the status of their efforts to re-establish the service. They last update had beem March 6, 2018. The new update is not dated but it appears to have been placed online just a few days ago.

Hosted Web Sites, which would be the category under which all of the databases and PDF pages fall, are not yet available, but Roots Web does appear to be getting started with them, beginning with the USGENWEB sites, of which there are 600. The rest of us are asked to request reinstatement of our pages sometime "in the coming weeks" when a link is made available. There is no indication of how long after a request is made that the pages will actually be restored and available online.

So, there is movement, but we still may be a ways away from being up and back online. I will keep you posted.

Added after initial post: Here is a new RootsWeb Blog which promises to announce updates. So, if you wish to follow progress directly, subscribe to the RootsWeb Blog site. I will be adding it to the My Blog List found in the right column of this page.

July 5, 2018: A request was placed with RootsWeb for the restoration of the Brouwer Genealogy Database website. According to the RootsWeb Blog post of July 5th, the restoration could take 2-4 weeks. Based on past experience that sounds optimistic. We'll see. The other databases (Brewer-Lanier, and Brewers of New England for example) were set up as sub-directories of the Brouwer Genealogy Database, so I suspect that they would be restored when the BGD is restored. Again, we'll see.

July 13, 2018: Some RootsWeb hosted sites are in fact back up online. The sites listed here are hosted by RootsWeb and have a different URL root (for lack of a better term) than did the Brouwer Genealogy Database.  The URL for the BGD was

BGB 590

Friday, June 29, 2018

Late 18th Century Wills Recorded in New York County, New York

Surnames BROWER and BREWER found in books of the New York County Surrogate's Court. In this post we are covering the years 1778 to 1795. The images are online at in their collection titled New York Probate Records, 1629-1971 > New York County.

Nicholas Brower, 10 June 1778, 33: 10 (12), 41. Codicil at p. 12 (15). At Albany AB, No. 120 (image 690). The will is dated 17 Sep 1777, with codicil dated 21 Sep 1777, recorded at the Surrogate's Court 17 Jun 1778. He is calls himself Nicholas Brouwer of Albany, yeoman. He mentions his wife Sarah, his brother Cornelis and his own children, Nicholas Jr., David, William, Jeremiah, Jacob, Jane (wife of William Conklin), Sara, Catherina, Elisabeth. Sarah Brower, executrix appeared before Judge Thomas Treadwell of the Probate Court at Dutchess County, New York on 10 Jun 1778. Nicholas Brower, as executor appeared before the Surrogate Court in Dutchess Co., 31 Aug 1778. This Nicholas was married twice, first to Mary Dutcher (six children) and second to Sarah Drake (seven children) who afterwards married Stephen Callow. He is a son of Adolphus Brouwer (1693-1742) and Jannetje Verdon (daughter of Jacob Verdon and Femmetje Westervelt). Nicholas is a great-grandson of Adam Brouwer, of Gowanus, L. I. Nicholas was born 11 June 1714 (according to a Bible record) and was the Brouwer responsible for establishing the mills at Wappingers Falls in Dutchess County, New York.

Johannes Brewer, 13 Jan. 1780, 33: 149 (223), 152. Begins at the very bottom of page 223. The will is dated 19 June 1778. Proved 13 Jan 1780. Johannis Brewer, of the Manor of Philipsburgh in Westchester County, being in perfect health. My will is that my son Jacob shall have all my improvements where I now live, on condition that he gives his sister Peggy Brewer a good maintainance. I leave to my daughter Peggy a good bed and furniture. I leave all household goods to my four sons and three daughters viz: Deliverance, Peter, Matthew, Jacob, Angeltie wife of John Sispen, Lena wife of Peter Mabie and Peggy, and all my moveables. I make my friend William Yurksea and John Yurksea, executors. Witnesses: Johanis Britt, William Britt, William Davids. Johannes/John, called Brewer in the will, was baptized in 1702 at the Reformed Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow. He was a son of Samuel Brouwer and Grietje Smith, a grandson of Matthys Brouwer and Marietje Pieterse (Wyckoff) and a great grandson of Adam Brouwer of Gowanus, L. I.

James Brewer, 7 Dec. 1780, 33: 196 (299), 191. Begins at the bottom of page 196 (299). Dated 20 November 1780, proved 7 Dec 1780. James Brewer of the Manor of Cortlandt in Westchester County, being weak and sick. I leave to my son Joseph, seventy pounds in gold or silver. To my wife Hannah, my horse and riding chair. After all debts are paid I leave the rest to my wife Hannah and my seven children, Sarah, Mary, Joseph, James, Daniel, Phebe and Samuel. I make my wife and my son Joseph and my brother-in-law Abijah Lee, executors. Witnesses: Justus Sherwood, Josiah Ingersoll, Joseph Lee, Jr. James Brewer was baptized in July 1740 at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. He is a son of Daniel Brewer (b. 1704, Watertown, MA) and Phebe Locke. He is a great-great grandson of John Brewer (b. abt. 1621, Cambridge, England) who was at Sudbury, Massachusetts by October 1642. John Brewer had a son, John (1642-1691) who married Elizabeth Rice, and a daughter Hannah (1645-1697) who married Daniel Goble. Two descendants of the immigrant ancestor, John Brewer (his wife was named Anne) have taken Y-DNA tests with the Brewer DNA Project. Advanced SNP testing with Big-Y (FTDNA) and analysis at YFull, now has them identified as haplogroup R-FGC46823 (which is an update from the post of April 22, 2016). James Brewer's wife was Hannah Lee, a daughter of Joseph Lee who died in 1790 in Westchester County.

Jurre Brower, 11 Feb 1784, 36: 228 (272), 183. His will dated 18 September 1754 was not proved until nearly 30 years later on 4 February 1784. We know he was living in 1778 when he owned a seat at the Brooklyn Reformed Dutch Church. His name appears variously as Jeury, Jurian and Jeremiah, and was no doubt named for his maternal grandfather, Jurian Caljer. Jurre Brower was the son of Abraham Brouwer and Cornelia Caljer, and a grandson of Adam Brouwer. Jurre and his brother, Abraham received from their father, the mills and property at Gowanus, L. I. In his will he calls himself a miller. He was married twice, first to Elizabeth Hilton (his first cousin) with whom he had eleven children, and second to Charity Stillwell (no children). His will mentions three sons, Abraham, William and Adolph, who receive his whole estate, real and personal in "Brookland." He mentions his wife, Geertje (Charity is an anglicization of Geertje, which in Dutch is pronounced closely to Charity), and the goods she brought to the estate. Daughters, Maria, Cornelia, Jannetje, Elizabeth, Sara and Lena, who are all not yet married. Daughter Annatie, the wife of Henry Taylor. The three sons are executors and Jacob Bennet, Jurie Bennet and Simon Boerum witnessed the will.

Jacob Brower, 5 April 1784, 36: 366 (440), 280His will is dated 23 October 1781, proved 5 Apr 1784. Jacob Brouwer of the City of New York, masoner. Devises to son Jacob, five pounds to be paid to him before the remainder of the estate is to be divided. Names sons, Jacob, Abraham and William; daughter Petronella; daughter Anna, wife of Cornelius Cooper; daughter Jane, wife of Henry Van Winkel; heirs of daughter Mary deceased, meaning Gitty and Mary Permilliar. Should any of my deceased father, Jacob Brouwer's, estate be recovered after my death, it is to be divided into four shares. One fourth equally unto my within named heirs; another unto the heirs of my brother John Brouwer deceased; another unto my brother Everardus Brouwer; the remaining fourth unto my brother Abraham Brouwer. Names sons Jacob and Abraham, and nephew Jacob Brouwer, hatter, all of New York City, as executors. Wit: George Lindsay, Nicholas Hillaman, Abraham Brouwer. Dated at Kakiat, New York, in the fifth year of American Independence. Jacob was baptized on 24 September 1710 at the Brooklyn Reformed Dutch Church. He was a son of Jacob Brouwer and Petronella de La Montagne. His grandparents were Jacob Brouwer and Annatje Bogardus through whom descendants claim descent from Anneke Jans Bogardus. He is a great grandson of Adam Brouwer. This Jacob Brouwer was married to Maria de Lanoy, a daughter of Abraham de Lanoy and Jannetje Roome. Jacob and Maria had ten children, all baptized at the New York City Reformed Dutch Church between 1737 and 1758. Both Jacob and Maria are recorded as witnesses to numerous baptisms in the church's records. Apparently late in life he lived at Kakiat in Orange County (now Rockland Co.), New York, likely escaping British occupied New York City during the Revolutionary War years. He was a mason.

William Brower, 12 June 1786, 39: 123 (140), 110. At Albany AB No. 139 (image 759). The will is dated 4 September 1782 and can be found in both the New York County Surrogate's Court records and on file in the Clerk's Office at Albany. It was probated 12 Jun 1786. In the will he calls himself "William Brower of Rumbout Precinct, Dutchess County, farmer, being weak of body but of sound mind and memory...". Names his wife Mattya, son Jeremiah to receive 10 shillings for his birth right & "to my real and personal estate upon Long Island and Staten Island I allow to be sold and fifty pounds a piece to be given to my children viz: Garrett Brower, William Brower, Letty Brower & Cornelius Brower in lieu of fity pounds given to my son Jeremiah some time ago." The remaining "part of said estate" to be divided among all the children (Jeremiah, Garret, William, Letty, Cornelius). Names as executors, his wife Mattya Brower, sons Garrett and William Brower, and Abraham Hoagland. Witnessed by Francis Bogardus, John Ackerman, and James Wills. On 18 Nov 1786, Garrett and William Brower executors of the will of William Brower deceased appeared before Judge Thomas Treadwell, City of New York "duly sworn to the true execution and performance of the said will." William apparently left Long Island for the safety of Dutchess County after the Battle of Long Island in 1776. He was a son of Jeury Brouwer (Jurre Brower, above) and Elizabeth Hilton, and so died only a few years after his father. William's wife was Meclitta Van Duyn, daughter of Gerrit Van Duyn and Aaltie Van Nostrand. His children remained in Dutchess County. The daughter, Lette, or Aeltje, married Abraham Hoagland. William is a great grandson of Adam Brouwer.

Peter Brower, 12 Feb. 1788, 40: 79 (62), 70. Peter Brower's will is dated 15 May 1767, and was not proved until 22 January 1788. He was a bricklayer of New York City. To son Jacob, six shillings. Also all my wearing apparel and all residue of my estate, both real and personal, to my daughters Ann, now the wife of John Walker, mariner of New York, and Elizabeth, wife of Henry Ustick, shopkeeper, of New York, to be divided equally between them, their heirs, forever. My son Jacob to recieve 1/3 part of the rents and profits of my real estate during his natural life. I appoint my brother-in-law William Woynants, and my cousin Everardus Brower, hatter, executors. Wit.: Luke Jno. Kierstead, Charles Phillips, yeoman, Charles Morse. Proved 22 Jan 1788. On 12 Feb 1788, William Woynants having since died, Everardus Brower, the other executor, having refused to serve, the Court appoints Peter Ustick, merchant of New York, to administer the estate. Peter Brower, or Pieter Brouwer, was said to have been born 29 March 1699 (according to the notorious "Hill Manuscript"). A record of his baptism has not been found, as he was likely born at Gowanus (Brooklyn) at a time when many of the Reformed Church records there are lost. Based upon witness recording at baptisms, he appears to have been a son of Jacob Brouwer and Annatje Bogardus, and so a grandson of Adam Brouwer, and a great-grandson of Anneke Jans Bogardus. Pieter/Peter was married three times. By his first wife, Elizabeth Quackenbosch, daughter of Benjamin Quackenbosch and Classje Webber, he had eleven children, all baptized at New York between 1722 and 1742. His second wife was Catharina Thong (m. 14 April 1750), and his third was Sara Kip (m. 17 October 1751), a daughter of Pieter Kip and Immetje Van Dyck. No known children by his second and third wives. The "brother-in-law, William Woynants," who served as an executor, was the husband of Leah Quackenbosch, who was a sister of Peter's first wife. The "cousin Everardus Brower," would actually be a nephew; a  son of Jacob Brouwer and Petronella de La Montagne, which supports the placement of Peter as a son of Jacob Brouwer and Annatje Bogardus. Although he had eleven children, the will only mentions three - son Jacob, and two married daughters, Anna and Elizabeth. While four others are known to have died early, it is possible that all or some of the remaining four were still living, but may have left the New York City area for parts west. The son Petrus Brouwer (bapt. 1740) appears to have been the Peter Brewer who died in Williamsburg, Clermont Co., Ohio in 1842, age 102 (he was recorded as age "over 100" on the 1840 U.S. census at Williamsburg), while it is conceivable that his son Benjamin (bapt. 1728) may be the Benjamin Bruer whose estate was administered in 1778 in the old Yohogania County, Virginia, having lived at which was soon after, Westmoreland Co., Pennsylvania. (More on this in a future post).

Abraham Brower, 19 June 1792, 41: 27 (17), 43. Dated 6 July 1789, proved 19 Jun 1792, he calls himself, "Abraham Brower of the City of New York, carpenter, being in perfect health and of a sound mind, memory and understanding." Mentions, "my eldest son Garret Brower, all my carpenters tools and to concern for such further part of my estate as is herein after expressed further I will and order that my loving wife shall remain in the full possession of all my real and personal estate during her natural life and after her decease I will and order that my said estate both real and personal shall be equally divided amongst my children herein after named share and share alike that is to say one full sixth part to my son Garret full sixth part to my son Abraham full sixth part to my daughter Peter Nelly full sixth part to my daughter Effe sixth full part to my daughter Mary full sixth part to my grand daughter Elsie Thew." Abraham appointed, "my loving wife sole executrix." He did not mention her name, however, she is called Effe Brouwer when administration of Abraham's estate was granted to her on 19 June 1792. Witnesses: George Stanton, Ahasuerus Turk, Cornelius Sebring (blacksmith). Abraham was baptized 6 February 1717 at the New York Reformed Dutch Church. He was another son of Jacob Brouwer and Petronella de La Montagne, and so a great grandson of Adam Brouwer and a great-great grandson of Anneke Jans Bogardus. Abraham married Aefje (Effe or Affe) Van Gelder (see immediately below), a daughter of Gerrit Van Gelder and Anna Quick, and of the Van Gelder family descended from Jan Van Gelder and Tanneken Montanac (and not of the Van Gelders descended from Evert Hendrickszen and Fytje Brouwer). They had nine children born between 1744 and 1772 (a 28 year span. Aefje would have been 47 years old when her son Abraham, mentioned in the will, was born). The will is recorded a second time here, Abraham Brower, 23 Nov. 1795, 41: 603 (438), 271. This second record appears after his widow's death, when son-in-laws Anthony Post and Jabez (a.k.a. Taber) Halsey, and son Abraham Brower, appeared before the Surrogate's Court.

Affe Brower, 29 June 1795, 41: 515 (373), 237. Her will was dated 12 June 1795 and proved 29 June 1795. She calls herself Affie Brouwer widow of Abraham Brower formerly of the City of New York deceased house carpenter, being sick in body but of a sound and disposing mind...I give and bequeath all the rest and residue of my estate real and personal unto such of my daughters as shall be living at my decease and to their heirs (daughters names not given)...I do nominate and appoint my son Abraham Brower, my sons-in-law Anthony Post and Jabez Halsey to be executors. Wit: George Ireland, John Divine, John Cresier. Affie was the widow of Abraham Brower mentioned just above, and a daughter of Gerrit Van Gelder and Anna Quick. She was baptized 25 August 1725 at the New York Reformed Dutch church.

Early 19th century wills of New York County coming in a future post.

BGB 589

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

Images From Probate Records in Chatham County, North Carolina

We've had too dry a spring, but the rains have come back this past week and since it's a rainy morning we can take the opportunity to turn out another quick post for the Brewers in the South.

Chatham County, North Carolina is one of the principal focus points for research on the early generations of descendants of George Brewer of Brunswick County, Virginia. Here are some images and links collected during the brief time back in early 2015 that I spent searching for Brewers in Chatham County.

Here is an page from an index to Chatham County wills. Chatham County Probate Records, 1735-1970 can be accessed from this page at Henry Brewer is listed about halfway down the page. You will also note a couple of listings for a Henry Bray. There are Bray and Brewer marriages from the early generations. One that comes to mind is that of a Jeremiah Brewer and Anna Bray, of whom there will be a little more in a future post.

Image from Chatham Co., NC Wills Index, 1682-1905 at FamilySearch

This next image is from a different index of wills for Chatham County, but accessed from the same larger collection that I linked to above.

Image no. 10 at Chatham Co., NC Wills Index, 1770-1924 v.1
This index is very rough, and is only alphabetized by the first letter of the surname. And the pages to the index are not numbered, so here I refer to the image number on the FamilySearch viewer. If you are looking for Brewers you will have to scan through each page of the B's. It does, however, list both Devisees and Devisors, in other words, testators (devisors) and the heirs, beneficiaries, etc. (devisees). There are a few Brewers on the page above. Image no. 9 in this film includes "Ambrose Brewer, Nov. 1860" (right side page, about half way down). Image no. 8 includes a "Polly Brewer," a devisee of a "John Burns, senr." (right side, five names down). Search through the B's, I'm sure you'll find more. One of the striking things I noticed during the time I did spend on this family, is just how few of the wives of the Brewer men from the first two or three generations have been identified. Other than George Brewer's wife, Sarah LANIER, and their son George Brewer's wife, Abigail WYCHE, we do not know with certainty the identity of any of the other wives of George Brewer's sons. Does John Burns' will identify a Brewer wife (perhaps of a later generation)?

North Carolina Estate Files, 1663-1979, is one of those rare searchable estate collections at FamilySearch. Enter BREWER in the search box and you'll get 222 hits. Enter BROWER and we get 51 hits. Don't forget, some descendants of Hubert Brower migrated to North Carolina with other German Baptists and Quakers from Pennsylvania at about the time of the American Revolutionary War. They primarily settled in Randolph County, and are in effect living right among the Brewers. Here are a couple of images from the estate file of William Brewer, dated 1811.

William Brewer, Estate File, image 4

William Brewer, Estate File, image 5
There are fourteen pages in William Brewer's estate file. Take the time to view them all. I believe this William Brewer was a son Oliver Brewer (see the post of January 15, 2015).

 Next is the will of Nathan Brewer, of Chatham County, dated 6 April 1836. It is found in Chatham Co., Wills, vol. C, p. 89.

Will of Nathan Brewer, Chatham Co., NC Wills v. C, p. 89
Here's a brief abstract: Nathan Brewer of Chatham County, North Carolina, being of sound and perfect mind and memory... Wife, Polly, all property both real and personal during her life or widdowhood. After her death or widdowhood, what property remains, after paying just debts, "Elizabeth, Amus, Winney and Eleanor to have equal to them that have married and settled of and after they git equal then the balance to equally divided all of my children, that I had by my wife Polly..." Land to son Amus after death of wife Polly. Son-in-law John Gee apointed executor.
Signed Nathan Brewer. Wit.: Geo. Gee, John Adcock. I have Nathan penciled in as a son of a John Brewer, Sr. whose estate was administered on 10 May 1824 in Chatham County. John's wife was Nancy, and his children were John, Amos, Nathan, Martha and Polly. I have not placed this John Brewer within a North Carolina Brewer family, George Brewer's or otherwise. If someone reading this can place him please advise us using the Comments below, and please provide your proof for his placement.

And for those searching in Chatham County, please don't ignore David V. Brewer's, "Brewer Families of Moore and Southwest Chatham County, North Carolina."

To assure those who may be thinking otherwise, the Brouwers and Brewers of New York are not forgotten, and a post for the New Yorkers will follow. More for "Brewers in the South" in future posts soon.

Tuesday, June 26, 2018

Tips For Those Joining The Brewer DNA Project

The Brewer DNA Project is a Y-Chromosome DNA project and those joining the project will get the most out of their participation by considering a few suggestions that are developed from my experience of having worked with numerous participants in the project over the past seven or eight years. I'll try and relate them here, and I'll try and be brief and to the point.

There is one basic concept that needs to be understood:
Genetic genealogy and traditional* genealogy go hand in hand. Genetic genealogy is an accompaniment to traditional genealogy. It is one more research method. And without traditional genealogy, genetic genealogy (for the purpose of finding a relatively recent ancestor**) is of limited value. 

There are two primary reasons for joining the project: 
One is that you've reached a brick wall with your traditional genealogical research, you can't connect to that original colonial period ancestor, and you want to at least narrow down the field as to where to focus continued research. You want to learn which larger Brewer, Brower, Brouwer family is in your ancestry.

Reason two would be that you already have your complete ancestry back to the first colonial period ancestor, and you realize that by adding your Y-DNA test results as a descendant, you'll be helping your cousins who are stuck, break through their brick walls. It's a opportunity for you to share what you know and to help out others.
Now that you've decided to join, here are four things that will lead to a better experience:
  1. Work on your ancestry. Prior to joining, do the basic traditional genealogical work needed to prove as conclusively as possible, your Brewer line, back to the earliest known ancestor (EKA) you can identify. Your proof should rely on actual records like birth, marriage, death and burial records, probate and estate records, land records, family records (Bible records) that have a knowable provenance or authenticity, etc. There are probably hundreds of thousands of genealogy "trees" online now. I've put my own share there myself. Don't rely on them (mine included). They do not constitute proof. Use them, especially the ones that have cited sources (like most of mine) as guides or clues as to where to look to find the true proof that you need. Do your own work, it's more satisfying than simply copying someone's tree.
  2. Share your ancestry. Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) provides each customer with a family tree feature as part of your account. Be certain to enter or upload (using a GEDCOM) at the very least, your direct Brewer line back to your EKA based on the traditional genealogical work you've already done. This will allow you to easily share your tree with your matches and other members of the Project. Without a lineage to pair it with, your test data is less useful.
  3. Educate yourself about genetic genealogy. Genetic genealogy is still new, and most of us have no prior experience with it. Even before you sign up and order your test kit, start learning all you can about what genetic genealogy is, how it might help you, what types of tests are there and do they relate to the question you're trying to answer, etc. Learn the terminology and learn to understand just what your test results are telling you. There are a lot of sources out there and here is a page on this website with many links. In addition see the August 4, 2017 post. I would also recommend two books, both by Blaine Bettinger: The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy and  Genetic Genealogy in Practice, both published in late 2016***. Start with the former. Some of the information there is repeated in the latter, but the additional material in the latter make it worth while for those who are enthusiastic about mastering this. This is work. But you'll be better able to converse with those who you match and the administrators of the project. And you'll be able to decide for yourself whether or not, and which type of additional testing may benefit you. "Spend an hour a day on any subject and in a year you'll be an expert." I heard someone say that once. I think it works.
  4. Participate. Make certain that your privacy settings allow your matches, and the administrators of the Project, the ability to see them and contact you. Initiate contact with matches yourself, and be considerate by responding to those who contact you. The Brewer DNA Project site has what is (poorly) called an Activity Feed (only logged in members can access this). It is essentially a forum for correspondence within the group. To date it has primarily been used by the administrators to communicate info to the members, but it has also been used by members to ask questions, and share their ancestry info. Use it to do just that. If you have a question, put it out there. Hopefully an answer will come along. If you have something that you think may help others, please share it. And here I will offer the use this blog, Brouwer Genealogy, for the same. Utilize the Comments option under each post if you have a question or some info that may answer problems presented in the post, or to add more to the post. If you would like to reach a larger audience than you would with the Activity Feed at the Brewer DNA Project, then write up a post for this blog and I'll place it online for you with your name and a method for contacting you. I'll be willing to help by posting your questions, queries, genealogy work that you've done on a particular family or line, that may help others, etc. (send it to me either in the body of an e-mail or an attached Word doc., and I'll copy and format it so it fits on the site). Even better, if you have the ambition, start your own genealogy site and post your research and discoveries online in a format that you control. But, most importantly, get it out there, share it.
 Finally, remember that there is never any guarantee that genetic genealogy will quickly answer your questions or find with certainty your missing ancestor. However, you will have one more set of information to work with, and you may well be introduced to others working on the same problem. And in the end, what you get out of it generally is proportional to what you put into it. Good luck.
*By "traditional" genealogy, I'm referring to genealogy done by the usual methods of tracking down vital records, probate records, etc. to compile and prove a lineage.
**By relatively recent ancestor, I mean one who lived within the past 500 years or so. Most of those who join are trying to identify that elusive colonial period ancestor (1620-1783) or post colonial ancestor who lived prior to 1850 when census and other records start to become more numerous.
***The links lead to pages at I am not compensated in any way by a purchase through this site, it's simply a convenient link for showing you these books.